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A Finite Element Simulation Tool for Predicting Hysteresis Losses in Superconductors Using an H-Oriented Formulation with Cohomology Basis Functions

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2345-2354
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2015
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Currently, modelling hysteresis losses in superconductors is most often based on the H-formulation of the eddy current model (ECM) solved using the finite element method (FEM). In the H-formulation, the problem is expressed using the magnetic field intensity H and discretized using edge elements in the whole domain. Even though this approach is well established, it uses unnecessary degrees of freedom (DOFs) and introduces modelling error such as currents flowing in air regions due to finite air resistivity. In this paper, we present a modelling tool utilizing another H-oriented formulation of the ECM, making use of cohomology of the air regions. We constrain the net currents through the conductors by fixing the DOFs related to the so-called cohomology basis functions. As air regions will be truly non-conducting, DOFs and running times of these nonlinear simulations are reduced significantly as compared to the classical H-formulation. This fact is demonstrated through numerical simulations.


  • Cohomology, Finite element method, Hysteresis losses, Superconductors

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