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Action-Oriented Programming Model: Collective Executions and Interactions in the Fog

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Article number110391
JournalJournal of Systems and Software
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Today's dominant design for the Internet of Things (IoT) is a Cloud-based system, where devices transfer their data to a back-end and in return receive instructions on how to act. This view is challenged when delays caused by communication with the back-end become an obstacle for IoT applications with, for example, stringent timing constraints. In contrast, Fog Computing approaches, where devices communicate and orchestrate their operations collectively and closer to the origin of data, lack adequate tools for programming secure interactions between humans and their proximate devices at the network edge. This paper fills the gap by applying Action-Oriented Programming (AcOP) model for this task. While originally the AcOP model was proposed for Cloud-based infrastructures, presently it is re-designed around the notion of coalescence and disintegration, which enable the devices to collectively and autonomously execute their operations in the Fog by serving humans in a peer-to-peer fashion. The Cloud's role has been minimized—it is being leveraged as a development and deployment platform.


  • Edge computing, Fog Computing, Programming model, Proximity-based computing, Socio-technical systems

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Field of science, Statistics Finland

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