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Additive manufacturing of monolithic supercapacitors with biopolymer separator

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)689-697
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Electrochemistry
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


In this paper, additive layer-by-layer fabrication of a fully screen printed monolithic supercapacitor exhibiting performance comparable with supercapacitors prepared using lamination is reported. A novel separator material improves the performance of the monolithic supercapacitor, is easily applicable using scalable processes such as screen and stencil printing, and is based on sustainable biomaterials. The additive monolithic manufacturing offers advantages for system integration and avoids the need of an additional alignment step as needed in the fabrication of laminated supercapacitors. Previously, the monolithically fabricated supercapacitors showed higher equivalent series resistance (ESR) and leakage current than the laminated ones. By using microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and chitosan as separator materials ESR and leakage current were decreased. These disposable and non-toxic aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors are optimized for autonomous sensor systems, for example in Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, with capacitance of 200–300 mF and ESR of about 10 Ω. The new composite separator material consisting of MFC and chitosan has good adhesion on the electrodes and the substrate, is easy to apply using printing and coating processes, and does not diffuse into the porous electrode. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].


  • Chitosan, Energy storage, MFC, Microfibrillated cellulose, Nanocellulose, Printed electronics, Separator, Supercapacitors

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