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Advanced boundary electrode modeling for tES and parallel tES/EEG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-44
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This paper explores advanced electrode modeling in the context of separate and parallel transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements.We focus on boundary condition based approaches that do not necessitate adding auxiliary elements, e.g. sponges, to the computational domain. In particular, we investigate the complete electrode model (CEM) which incorporates a detailed description of the skin-electrode interface including its contact surface, impedance and normal current distribution. The CEM can be applied for both tES and EEG electrodes which is advantageous when a parallel system is used. In comparison to the CEM, we test two important reduced approaches: the gap model (GAP) and the point electrode model (PEM). We aim to find out the differences of these approaches for a realistic numerical setting based on the stimulation of the auditory cortex. The results obtained suggest, among other things, that GAP and GAP/PEM are sufficiently accurate for the practical application of tES and parallel tES/EEG, respectively. Differences between CEM and GAP were observed mainly in the skin compartment, where only CEM explains the heating effects characteristic to tES.


  • Boundary conditions, Brain modeling, Complete electrode model (CEM), Computational modeling, Electric potential, Electrodes, Electroencephalography, Electroencephalography (EEG) electrode modeling, Finite element method (FEM)., Skin, Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES)

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Field of science, Statistics Finland