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Analysis of GaAsBi growth regimes in high resolution with respect to As/Ga ratio using stationary MBE growth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-41
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The control of Bi incorporation and material properties in III-V-Bi alloys has proved challenging due to their high sensitivity to the epitaxial growth parameters. Here, we present a methodology for determining the variation in the Ga, As, and Bi fluxes and the temperature across a stationary substrate in molecular beam epitaxy. By correlating the flux distributions with material properties, we identify distinct regimes for epitaxy of GaAsBi. In particular, we devise a detailed image of the interplay between Bi incorporation and structural properties of a bulk GaAs 0.96 Bi 0.04 layer grown on GaAs(1 0 0) with respect to the As/Ga ratio. The influence of As/Ga is analyzed with high resolution over the important stoichiometric range (i.e. As/Ga = 0.6–1.6). Growth outside the near-stoichiometric As/Ga regime leads to decreased Bi incorporation, decreased structural quality and the formation of Ga, Ga/Bi or Bi droplets. On the other hand, growth at As/Ga = 1.00–1.17 leads to maximized material quality. For this regime, the surface roughness is further optimized by fine-tuning the As/Ga ratio to suppress surface mounding to a value of 0.5 nm. The results reveal the extreme sensitivity of GaAsBi growth to small variations in the As/Ga ratio, and demonstrate the applicability of stationary growth in studying these effects.


  • A3. Molecular beam epitaxy, B1. Bismuth compounds, B2. Semiconducting III-V materials, B2. Semiconducting ternary compounds

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland