Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

Architecting liquid software

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-470
Number of pages38
JournalJournal of Web Engineering
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The Liquid Software metaphor refers to software that can operate seamlessly across multiple devices owned by one or multiple users. Liquid Software applications can take advantage of the computing, storage and communication resources available on all the devices owned by the user. Liquid Software applications can also dynamically migrate from one device to another, following the user’s attention and usage context. The key design goal in Liquid Software development is to minimize the additional efforts arising from multiple device ownership (e.g., installation, synchronization and general maintenance of personal computers, smartphones, tablets, home and car displays, and wearable devices), while keeping the users in full control of their devices, applications and data. In this paper we present the design space for Liquid Software, categorizing and discussing the most important architectural dimensions and technical choices. We also provide an introduction and comparison of two frameworks implementing Liquid Software capabilities in the context of the World Wide Web.


  • Design space, Liquid software, Multi-device programming, Multiple device ownership, Software architecture

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland