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Aspects of Electric Vehicles and Demand Response in Electricity Grids

Research output: Book/ReportDoctoral thesisCollection of Articles


Original languageEnglish
PublisherTampere University of Technology
Number of pages80
ISBN (Electronic)978-952-15-3615-1
ISBN (Print)978-952-15-3586-4
Publication statusPublished - 6 Nov 2015
Publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Publication series

NameTampere University of Technology. Publication
PublisherTampere University of Technology
ISSN (Print)1459-2045


The growing global energy demand combined with limited resources of fossil energy (especially crude oil), climate change and other environmental issues, the energy system has faced significant challenges. There is significant pressure to diversify the energy sources towards more sustainable choices and to increase energy efficiency. Shifting gradually from the use of fossil fuels to use of renewable energy sources is a long way to go, and to make it economically feasible requires a significant amount of will, effort and innovation.

This thesis deals with two parts of the energy system: the electrical energy system and the energy system of road transportation. A “smart” electrical energy system of the future includes the flexibility of electricity demand, i.e. demand response (DR), enabled by different types of incentives and offering many potential advantages. A road transportation system of the future can include significant amount of electric vehicles (full electric vehicles – full EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – PHEVs) as part of the vehicle fleet. These vehicles could also participate in the operation of an electrical power system. This thesis discusses electric vehicles and demand response in smart grid context.

The most important results and findings of the thesis are the following. In Finland, PHEVs could offer a significant proportion or even most of the benefits of EVs even with a quite modest charging infrastructure, and simultaneously the most severe obstacles of full EVs could be avoided or at least mitigated. In this thesis, a flexible methodology for modeling PHEV charging load using National Travel Survey data has been developed. Statistical PHEV charging load models, taking into account modeled statistical distributions of the loads, have been used by two different real DNOs in their network information systems to assess the impacts of EVs on distribution network planning in urban networks. It seems that high amounts of EVs fit well into Finnish distribution networks, but in certain cases demand response of electric vehicles would be reasonable. Electric vehicles, some DR actions and other changes in electricity use can increase peak powers in distribution networks. New distribution tariffs have been developed and simulated in a real distribution network with the purpose of encouraging small electricity customers towards peak load restriction. It seems that these kinds of tariffs would be efficient in restricting the increase of peak powers of spot price based DR, although is seems to be hard to decrease the present peak powers very much in the distribution networks. Different general DR and smart charging concepts have been sketched, and a practical local customer-site peak load control management algorithm of an EV charging station group has been developed as a tool to realize demand response of a group of electric vehicles.

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