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Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-160
Number of pages17
JournalChemistry and Physics of Lipids
Volume199
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Abstract

The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes of oxysterols as well as pathological conditions induced by oxysterols.

Keywords

  • Biological membranes, Biophysical properties, Cholesterol, Oxidation, Oxidative stress, Oxysterols, Reactive oxygen species

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland