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Comparison of Saltation, Amplitude Modulation, and a Hybrid Method of Vibrotactile Stimulation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Article number6517847
Pages (from-to)517-521
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Illusory vibrotactile movement can be used to provide directional tactile information on the skin. Our research question was how the presentation method affects the perception of vibrotactile movement. Illusion of vibrotactile mediolateral movement was elicited to a left dorsal forearm to investigate cognitive and emotional experiences to vibrotactile stimulation. Eighteen participants were presented with stimuli delivered to a linearly aligned row of three vibrotactile actuators. Three presentation methods were used-saltation, amplitude modulation, and a hybrid method-to form 12 distinct patterns of movement. First, the stimuli were compared pairwise using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure (same-different judgments). Second, the stimuli were rated using three nine-point bipolar scales measuring the continuity, pleasantness, and arousal of each stimulus. The stimuli presented with the amplitude modulation method were rated significantly more continuous and pleasant, and less arousing. Strong correlations between the cognition-related scale of continuity and the emotion-related scales of pleasantness and arousal were found: More continuous stimuli were rated more pleasant and less arousing.


  • evaluation/methodology, haptic I/O, Information interfaces and representation (HCI), user interfaces