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Compatibilization of natural rubber/nitrile rubber blends by sol–gel nano-silica generated by in situ method

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Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)548–559
Number of pages12
JournalJOURNAL OF SOL-GEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Volume80
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Abstract

Abstract: Controlled growth of in situ silica, into natural rubber (NR)/nitrile rubber (NBR) blend (40/60 composition by weight) following solution sol–gel method, results in a coherent blend morphology with enhanced composite properties. Similar composites, i.e., in situ silica-filled NR/NBR blend (40/60 by weight), showed better mechanical properties than any other composition that were prepared by soaking sol–gel method in earlier study. However, silica content in the rubber blend was limited to 20 phr (parts per hundred parts of rubber) and could not be increased under experimental condition following soaking sol–gel method. In the present work, silica content is increased (up to 30 phr) beyond that limit for the same blend composition. Accordingly, mechanical properties of the NR/NBR composites are improved. Use of a silane coupling agent, viz., bis-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tetra sulfide, in the reactive sol–gel system during in situ silica generation brings in remarkable effect in silica distribution, rubber–filler interaction and mechanical properties of the composites. TEM micrographs of the selected composites reveal that silica is mostly grown at the interfacial region, when silane is used in particular. This results in further enhancement in mechanical properties and compatibility of the blend at the same silica content as evident from stress–strain and dynamic mechanical analysis studies. The reinforcement of effect in situ silica is assessed by Guth–Gold equation and modified form of Guth equation (with shape factor f = 2.53). The results are supported by the detailed studies on rheological, morphological, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the composites. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Keywords

  • In situ silica, Reinforcement, Rubber blend, Rubber–filler interaction, Silane treatment, Sol–gel method

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland