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Composition dependent growth dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells

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Composition dependent growth dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells. / Aho, Arto; Polojärvi, Ville; Korpijärvi, Ville Markus; Salmi, Joel; Tukiainen, Antti; Laukkanen, Pekka; Guina, Mircea.

In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 124, 05.2014, p. 150-158.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Aho A, Polojärvi V, Korpijärvi VM, Salmi J, Tukiainen A, Laukkanen P et al. Composition dependent growth dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2014 May;124:150-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.044

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Aho, Arto ; Polojärvi, Ville ; Korpijärvi, Ville Markus ; Salmi, Joel ; Tukiainen, Antti ; Laukkanen, Pekka ; Guina, Mircea. / Composition dependent growth dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells. In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2014 ; Vol. 124. pp. 150-158.

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@article{78f82d9c45914fccb295c4311e07a191,
title = "Composition dependent growth dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells",
abstract = "We have investigated the role of the nitrogen content, the growth parameters, and the annealing processes involved in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells lattice-matched to GaAs. The nitrogen composition was varied between 1{\%} and 5{\%}. The influence of the growth temperature was assessed by performing photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, quantum efficiency and light-biased current-voltage measurements. The growth temperature ensuring the best cell parameters was found to be 440 C. At this temperature we were able to incorporate up to 4{\%} of nitrogen and achieve a good material quality. Further increase of the N composition to 5{\%} led to phase separation. For the lattice matched samples grown within the optimal temperature range, we have identified a clear (1×3) surface reconstruction. Using the optimized growth we have demonstrated a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell structure containing 4{\%} nitrogen, that exhibited a short-circuit current density as high as 33.8 mA/cm2 in respect to effective area illuminated. These measurements have been performed under real sun AM1.5 (~1000 W/m2) illumination. {\circledC} 2014 Elsevier B.V.",
keywords = "Concentrated photovoltaics, Dilute nitrides, GaInNAs, Multi-junction solar cells, Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy",
author = "Arto Aho and Ville Poloj{\"a}rvi and Korpij{\"a}rvi, {Ville Markus} and Joel Salmi and Antti Tukiainen and Pekka Laukkanen and Mircea Guina",
note = "Contribution: organisation=orc,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-04-29<br/>Publisher name: Elsevier",
year = "2014",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.044",
language = "English",
volume = "124",
pages = "150--158",
journal = "Solar materials and Solar Cells",
issn = "0927-0248",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Composition dependent growth dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells

AU - Aho, Arto

AU - Polojärvi, Ville

AU - Korpijärvi, Ville Markus

AU - Salmi, Joel

AU - Tukiainen, Antti

AU - Laukkanen, Pekka

AU - Guina, Mircea

N1 - Contribution: organisation=orc,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-04-29<br/>Publisher name: Elsevier

PY - 2014/5

Y1 - 2014/5

N2 - We have investigated the role of the nitrogen content, the growth parameters, and the annealing processes involved in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells lattice-matched to GaAs. The nitrogen composition was varied between 1% and 5%. The influence of the growth temperature was assessed by performing photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, quantum efficiency and light-biased current-voltage measurements. The growth temperature ensuring the best cell parameters was found to be 440 C. At this temperature we were able to incorporate up to 4% of nitrogen and achieve a good material quality. Further increase of the N composition to 5% led to phase separation. For the lattice matched samples grown within the optimal temperature range, we have identified a clear (1×3) surface reconstruction. Using the optimized growth we have demonstrated a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell structure containing 4% nitrogen, that exhibited a short-circuit current density as high as 33.8 mA/cm2 in respect to effective area illuminated. These measurements have been performed under real sun AM1.5 (~1000 W/m2) illumination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

AB - We have investigated the role of the nitrogen content, the growth parameters, and the annealing processes involved in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells lattice-matched to GaAs. The nitrogen composition was varied between 1% and 5%. The influence of the growth temperature was assessed by performing photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, quantum efficiency and light-biased current-voltage measurements. The growth temperature ensuring the best cell parameters was found to be 440 C. At this temperature we were able to incorporate up to 4% of nitrogen and achieve a good material quality. Further increase of the N composition to 5% led to phase separation. For the lattice matched samples grown within the optimal temperature range, we have identified a clear (1×3) surface reconstruction. Using the optimized growth we have demonstrated a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell structure containing 4% nitrogen, that exhibited a short-circuit current density as high as 33.8 mA/cm2 in respect to effective area illuminated. These measurements have been performed under real sun AM1.5 (~1000 W/m2) illumination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

KW - Concentrated photovoltaics

KW - Dilute nitrides

KW - GaInNAs

KW - Multi-junction solar cells

KW - Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84894584078&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.044

DO - 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.01.044

M3 - Article

VL - 124

SP - 150

EP - 158

JO - Solar materials and Solar Cells

JF - Solar materials and Solar Cells

SN - 0927-0248

ER -