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Design and Control of a Flexible Joint as a Hydraulic Series Elastic Actuator for Manipulation Applications

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the IEEE 2019 9th International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics, CIS and RAM 2019
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781728134581
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-3459-8
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventIEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems, and Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics -
Duration: 1 Jan 2000 → …

Publication series

NameIEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems
ISSN (Print)2326-8123
ISSN (Electronic)2326-8239


ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems, and Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics
Period1/01/00 → …


Lightweight arms with electrical servomotor drives have demonstrated outstanding performance and speed in exoskeletons, prosthesis, and legged robot applications. They all share a similarity in actuation, which is based on series elastic actuators (SEAs). In SEAs, the system benefits from known compliance in the actuation that improves the overall performance, especially in contact with an environment that can have an unknown stiffness in assembly tasks. In some of these cases, harmonic drives or gears on the power transmission lines create the robot's compliance. For hydraulically actuated SEAs, Pratt and Krupp addressed the SEA challenges for lightweight hydraulic manipulators. However, this paper focuses on the design and control architecture of SEAs in heavy-duty manipulation having hydraulic load dynamics with variable stiffness or damping of fluid flexibility. This system faces challenging issues of payload dynamics and compressibility of fluid with high order system. A hydraulic SEA concept is designed, and a fifth-order state space SEA model is feedback controlled in a free space motion to demonstrate load dynamics of hydraulic actuation. In addition, a P controller and a controller based on integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) are designed. The simulation results show the latter has better performance in the spring deflection of the SEA. A mixed working condition that changes from a purely inertia payload to an inertia and elastic reaction force is designed to examine the switching smoothness for varying payloads, and the control adaptability of controllers in different working conditions.


  • Elastic Actuator, Heavy Duty Manipulation

Publication forum classification