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Designing, Manufacturing and Testing of a Piezoelectric Polymer Film In-Sole Sensor for Plantar Pressure Distribution Measurements

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6798-6805
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2017
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


We have designed, manufactured, and tested a prototype of an in-sole plantar pressure sensor. The sensor is made of a piezoelectric polymer film (polyvinylidenefluoride, PVDF) with evaporated copper electrodes. The size and the location of measuring sites are carefully considered to produce a light-weighted, practical, and inexpensive matrix sensor for measurement of plantar pressure distribution. The sensor consists of eight measurement locations: hallux, first metatarsal head (under both sesamoid bones), metatarsal heads 2-5 and heel. The developed in-sole sensor was evaluated through piezoelectric sensitivity measurements and test measurements with subjects (used as a platform sensor). Average peak-to-peak pressures from 58 to 486 kPa were obtained in plantar pressure measurements. The in-sole sensor can be used to prevent pressure ulcers. Also other application areas for the sensor are available, e.g., rehabilitation and sports. The developed sensor enables unobtrusive and long-term plantar pressure measurements. In future, an option for manufacturing the PVDF in-soles may be printing of desired electrode pattern on PVDF material, that would allow fast production, and if needed, the production of even individual in-soles.


  • diabetes, in-sole sensor, piezoelectric polymer PVDF, Plantar pressure

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Field of science, Statistics Finland