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Distributed small loads as fast frequency reserves: Impact on system performance

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 IEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference, TPEC 2020
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781728144368
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventIEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference -
Duration: 1 Jan 1900 → …


ConferenceIEEE Texas Power and Energy Conference
Abbreviated titleTPEC
Period1/01/00 → …


This paper discusses the concept of using AMR (automatic meter reading) connected distributed loads as fast frequency reserves (ACFRs). The paper presents high-level analysis on power system response when considerable amount of directly grid-connected rotational reserves are replaced by AMR meter connected loads. In the study, the amount of ACFRs and their response time (i.e. very fast and fast) are varied together with different rotational kinetic reserves of power generation participating in frequency control. For the studies, a general power system and load models for EMT-type software have been established. The results show that ACFR could in principle replace effectively rotating reserves provided that frequency measurement and the coordination of the ACFRs are robust. The studied load shedding patterns and parametrization have less than excepted influence on frequency minimum and system response.


  • AMR, Distributed load, Fast frequency reserves, Measurement, Power system

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