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Energy density-method: An approach for a quick estimation of quench temperatures in high-field accelerator magnets

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Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Issue number4
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Accelerator magnets for future particle accelerators are designed to work with as high energy densities as possible to achieve high fields and compact magnet designs. A key factor limiting the energy density is given by the protection in case of quench: If a quench occurs, the stored energy must be first absorbed by the windings, and the magnet temperature shall not exceed a given limit. In this paper, we present a back-of-the-envelope method for estimating the magnet's maximum temperature after a quench based on its stored energy. The method combines the existing concepts of MIITs, time margin, and protection delay to allow for easy and direct calculation of the hot-spot temperature. We apply the proposed method to several Nb3Sn dipole and quadrupole magnets developed for HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) and the FCC-hh (Future Circular Collider for hadron-hadron collisions) and compare the results to a more detailed simulation. The proposed Energy density-method is a useful tool for fast feedback in the early magnet design phase to ensure that the magnet is not impossible to protect.


  • Conductivity, Copper, Energy storage, Heating systems, Magnetic circuits, Superconducting magnets, Temperature

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