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Enhanced outdoor to indoor propagation models and impact of different ray tracing approaches at higher frequencies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58-68
Number of pages11
JournalAdvances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The main target of this article is to study the provision of indoor service (coverage) using outdoor base station at higher frequencies i.e. 10 GHz, 30 GHz and 60 GHz. In an outdoor to indoor propagation, an angular wall loss model is used in the General Building Penetration (GBP) model for estimating the additional loss at the intercept point of the building exterior wall. A novel angular wall loss model based on a separate incidence angle in azimuth and elevation plane is proposed in this paper. In the second part of this study, an Extended Building Penetration (EBP) model is proposed, and the performance of EBP model is compared with the GBP model. In EBP model, the additional fifth path known as the “Direct path” is proposed to be included in the GBP model. Based on the evaluation results, the impact of the direct path is found significant for the indoor users having the same or closed by height as that of the height of the transmitter. For the indoor users located far away from the exterior wall of building, a modified and enhanced approach of ray tracing type is proposed in this article. In the light of acquired simulation results, the impact of a modified ray tracing approach is emphasized.


  • Angular loss, Building penetration loss, Outdoor to indoor, Propagation, Ray tracing, Wall loss model

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