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Entanglement: Quantum or classical?

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Article number064001
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


From its seemingly non-intuitive and puzzling nature, most evident in numerous EPR-like gedanken experiments to its almost ubiquitous presence in quantum technologies, entanglement is at the heart of modern quantum physics. First introduced by Erwin Schrödinger nearly a century ago, entanglement has remained one of the most fascinating ideas that came out of quantum mechanics. Here, we attempt to explain what makes entanglement fundamentally different from any classical phenomenon. To this end, we start with a historical overview of entanglement and discuss several hidden variables models that were conceived to provide a classical explanation and demystify quantum entanglement. We discuss some inequalities and bounds that are violated by quantum states thereby falsifying the existence of some of the classical hidden variables theories. We also discuss some exciting manifestations of entanglement, such as N00N states and the non-separable single particle states. We conclude by discussing some contemporary results regarding quantum correlations and present a future outlook for the research of quantum entanglement.

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Field of science, Statistics Finland