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Features of Water Cooperatives: A Comparative Study of Finland and Kenya

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)356-377
Number of pages22
JournalPublic Works Management and Policy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


There are several ways of arranging rural water supply. One of these is through water cooperatives that have been established to provide water supply, irrigation, and/or sewerage services. Water cooperatives are found in developed countries such as Finland, Denmark, Austria, Canada, and United States, and in developing countries in South America, such as Bolivia and Chile. Water cooperatives or their equivalent organizations that exist in Kenya are called self-help water projects. Yet, surprisingly little attention has been paid to this option even in countries with rich tradition of cooperatives in other sectors. In this study, Finland and Kenya were selected for a comparative analysis of the identified features of water cooperatives. Best practices observed in the features with differences could be shared between the two countries.


  • community, rural water supply, self-help water projects, water user associations

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Field of science, Statistics Finland

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