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Final shape of precision molded optics: Part II - Validation and sensitivity to material properties and process parameters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)614-636
Number of pages23
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2012
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


In Part I of this study a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model for the simulation of the entire precision glass lens molding process was presented. That study addressed the material definitions for the molding glass, L-BAL35, computational convergence, and how the final deviation of the lens shape from the mold shape is achieved for both a bi-convex lens and a steep meniscus lens. In the current study, after validating the computational approach for both lens types, an extensive sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the importance of several material and process parameters that affect deviation for both lens shapes. Such a computational mechanics approach has the potential to replace the current trial-and-error, iterative process of mold profile design to produce glass optics of required geometry, provided all the input parameters are known to sufficient accuracy. Some of the critical contributors to deviation include structural relaxation of the glass, thermal expansion of the molds, TRS and viscoelastic behavior of the glass and friction between glass and mold. The results indicate, for example, the degree of accuracy to which key material properties should be determined to support such modeling. In addition to providing extensive sensitivity results, this computational model also helps lens molders/machine designers to understand the evolution of lens profile deviation for different lens shapes during the course of the process.


  • Aspherical glass lens, Coupled thermo-mechanical numerical simulation, Micron deviation, Structural relaxation, Temperature dependent material parameters, Viscoelasticity