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Genotoxic activity of chlorinated butenoic acids in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA104

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-37
Number of pages7
JournalMutation Research: Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 1998
Externally publishedYes
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The mutagenic activities of several chlorinated butenoic acids, recently identified in chlorinated drinking waters, were determined by the Salmonella microsome assay. The Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA104 were used without S9 mix. The results from the investigation showed that (Z)-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (MX, in the open form) was the most potent mutagen of the compounds tested. However, a significant number of mutations was also induced by compounds with structural similarities to MX. In general, all the compounds, except the butenedioic acids, were mutagenic in the assays for both base-pair substitution strains (TA100, TA104) and for the frameshift strain TA98, with the highest mutagenic response observed in strain TA100. When the aldehyde group of MX and of 2-chloro-3-(chloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid (CMCF, in the open form) was replaced by a dichloromethyl group, the mutagenic response in strains TA98 and TA104 changed. We concluded that a frame-shift mutation occurred because of the replacement. The increase of the TA104 mutagenicity suggested that adenosine could be the target for these types of compounds. Further evidence for such possibility were the modified adenosine adducts we could identify for some chlorinated butenoic acids. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.


  • Chlorinated butenoic acid, Mutagenicity test, Salmonella typhimurium strain