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Hexaphyrin as a Potential Theranostic Dye for Photothermal Therapy and 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)951-959
Number of pages9
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 24 Mar 2017
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Two features of meso-Aryl-substituted expanded porphyrins suggest suitability as theranostic agents. They have excellent absorption in near infrared (NIR) region, and they offer the possibility of introduction of multiple fluorine atoms at structurally equivalent positions. Here, hexaphyrin (hexa) was synthesized from 2,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4-formyl benzoate and pyrrole and evaluated as a novel expanded porphyrin with the above features. Under NIR illumination hexa showed intense photothermal and weak photodynamic effects, which were most likely due to its low excited states, close to singlet oxygen. The sustained photothermal effect caused ablation of cancer cells more effectively than the photodynamic effect of indocyanine green (a clinical dye). In addition, hexa showed potential for use in the visualization of tumors by 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of the multiple fluorine atoms. Our results strongly support the utility of expanded porphyrins as theranostic agents in both photothermal therapy and 19F MRI.


  • expanded porphyrin, fluorine, MRI, NMR spectroscopy, photochemistry, theranostics

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland