High-dimensional quantum gates using full-field spatial modes of photons
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Scientific › peer-review
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 20 Feb 2020|
|Publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
Unitary transformations are the fundamental building blocks of gates and operations in quantum information processing, allowing the complete manipulation of quantum systems in a coherent manner. In the case of photons, optical elements that can perform unitary transformations are readily available only for some degrees of freedom, e.g., wave plates for polarization. However, for high-dimensional states encoded in the transverse spatial modes of light, performing arbitrary unitary transformations remains a challenging task for both theoretical proposals and actual implementations. Following the idea of multi-plane light conversion, we show that it is possible to perform a broad variety of unitary operations at high quality by using only a few phase modulation planes. More importantly, we experimentally implement several high-dimensional quantum gates for up to five-dimensional states encoded in the full-field mode structure of photons. In particular, we realize cyclic and quantum Fourier transformations, known as Pauli X -gates and Hadamard Ĥ-gates, respectively, with an average visibility of more than 90%. In addition, we demonstrate near-perfect “unitarity” by means of quantum process tomography, unveiling a process purity of 99%. Last, we demonstrate the benefit of the two independent spatial degrees of freedom, i.e., azimuthal and radial, and implement a two-qubit controlled-NOT quantum operation on a single photon. Thus, our demonstrations open up new paths to implement high-dimensional quantum operations, which can be applied to various tasks in quantum communication, computation, and sensing schemes.