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Homogenous homes of Finland: 'Standard' flats in non-standardized blocks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-247
Number of pages19
JournalBuilding Research and Information
Issue number3
Early online date25 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Several authors have successfully created and employed vintage cohorts and housing typologies in research addressing energy renovation needs in the existing dwelling stock. This paper suggests that the idea of types would be useful in creating living quality-related renovation and adaptation concepts for homes. These concepts could be used for increasing the accessibility and individuality of flats and easing life in cramped conditions by means of design. Therefore, the study tests the approach by examining the plan design of flats in one cohort: the Finnish 1960–80s' dwelling stock. A total of 320 apartment blocks with 8745 flats in 51 cities are examined. The study identifies 18 different types of flats, which are based on 10 basic layouts, representing over 80% of all flats. Although the housing production of this era was characterized by cost-efficiency and industrialized prefabrication technologies, the result can be deemed somewhat surprising. This is because the building layouts were never standardized in Finland: only the production technology was standardized. The identified flat types are estimated to cover as much as one-third of all existing Finnish flats. These findings provide future opportunities for creating new mass-tailored renovation concepts.


  • apartment buildings, archetypes, building research, building stock, flats, housing stock, internal space, typology, vintage cohorts, Finland

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Field of science, Statistics Finland

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