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Human Adipose Stem Cells Differentiated on Braided Polylactide Scaffolds is a Potential Approach for Tendon Tissue Engineering

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)513-523
Number of pages11
JournalTissue Engineering Part A
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Growing number of musculoskeletal defects increases the demand for engineered tendon. Our aim was to find an efficient strategy to produce tendon-like matrix in vitro. To allow efficient differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) toward tendon tissue, we tested different medium compositions, biomaterials, and scaffold structures in preliminary tests. This is the first study to report that medium supplementation with 50 ng/mL of growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and 280 μM l-ascorbic acid are essential for tenogenic differentiation of hASCs. Tenogenic medium (TM) was shown to significantly enhance tendon-like matrix production of hASCs compared to other tested media groups. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and tenogenic differentiation of hASCs were supported on braided poly(l/d)lactide (PLA) 96l/4d copolymer filament scaffolds in TM condition compared to foamed poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) 70L/30CL scaffolds. A uniform cell layer formed on braided PLA 96/4 scaffolds when hASCs were cultured in TM compared to maintenance medium (MM) condition after 14 days of culture. Furthermore, total collagen content and gene expression of tenogenic marker genes were significantly higher in TM condition after 2 weeks of culture. The elastic modulus of PLA 96/4 scaffold was more similar to the elastic modulus reported for native Achilles tendon. Our study showed that the optimized TM is needed for efficient and rapid in vitro tenogenic extracellular matrix production of hASCs. PLA 96/4 scaffolds together with TM significantly stimulated hASCs, thus demonstrating the potential clinical relevance of this novel and emerging approach to tendon injury treatments in the future.

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland