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Human adipose tissue extract induces angiogenesis and adipogenesis in vitro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-25
Number of pages9
JournalTissue Engineering Part A
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The induction of adequate vascularization, a major challenge in tissue engineering, has been tried with numerous methods but with unsatisfactory results. Adipose tissue, an active endocrine organ with dense vasculature, secretes a wide number of angiogenic and adipogenic factors and seems an attractive source for these bioactive factors. We produced a novel cell-free extract from mature human adipose tissue (adipose tissue extract [ATE]) and analyzed the ability of this extract to induce angiogenesis and adipogenesis in vitro and studied the cytokine and growth factor composition of ATE with ELISA and cytokine array. We demonstrate that ATE, when added as cell culture supplement, effectively induced triglyceride accumulation in human adipose stem cells at concentrations from 200 μg/mL upward in less than a week and caused elevated levels of adipocyte differentiation markers (proliferator-activated receptor gamma and acyl-CoA-binding protein) when treated with at least 350 μg/mL of ATE. ATE induced angiogenesis from 450 μg/mL upward after a week in vitro. ATE contained numerous angiogenic and adipogenic factors, for example, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-6, adiponectin, angiogenin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-I, as well as lower levels of a wide variety of other cytokines. We here present a novel cell-free angiogenesis-and adipogenesis-inducing agent that is cell-free and easy to produce, and its effect is dose dependent and its composition can be easily modified. Therefore, ATE is a promising novel agent to be used for angiogenesis induction to overcome the challenge of vascularization and for adipogenesis induction in a wide variety of tissue engineering applications in vitro and in vivo. ATE is also efficient for reproduction and modeling of natural adipogenesis in vitro for, for example, obesity and diabetes studies.