Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

Impedance-based interactions in grid-tied three-phase inverters in renewable energy applications

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Article number464
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2019
Publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


Impedance-ratio-based interaction analyses in terms of stability and performance of DC-DC converters is well established. Similar methods are applied to grid-connected three-phase converters as well, but the multivariable nature of the converters and the grid makes these analyses very complex. This paper surveys the state of the interaction analyses in the grid-connected three-phase converters, which are used in renewable-energy applications. The surveys show clearly that the impedance-ratio-based stability assessment are usually performed neglecting the cross-couplings between the impedance elements for reducing the complexity of the analyses. In addition, the interactions, which affect the transient performance, are not treated usually at all due to the missing of the corresponding analytic formulations. This paper introduces the missing formulations as well as explicitly showing that the cross-couplings of the impedance elements have to be taken into account for the stability assessment to be valid. In addition, this paper shows that the most accurate stability information can be obtained by means of the determinant related to the associated multivariable impedance ratio. The theoretical findings are also validated by extensive experimental measurements.


  • Grid synchronization, Power electronics, Power grid, Source and load impedance, Stability, Transient dynamics

Publication forum classification