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Influence of As/group-III flux ratio on defects formation and photovoltaic performance of GaInNAs solar cells

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-220
Number of pages8
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The correlation between the As to group III flux ratio and photovoltaic performance of GaIn0.1N0.03As solar cells fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is systematically investigated. The results show that flux ratio has a remarkable influence on the formation of defect traps. Furthermore, the formation of defects at different flux ratios is correlating with the variation of the background doping level and the photovoltaic performance. In particular, this study reveals a linear dependency between current generation, dark saturation current, defect densities, photoluminescence peak intensity and the flux ratio. A significant increase in solar cell performance, exhibiting maximum external quantum efficiency of 90%, is obtained when As/group-III ratio is decreased close to the stoichiometric limit. For optimized growth condition, the 1 eV GaIn0.1N0.03As solar cell exhibits a short circuit current density as high as 17.9 mA/cm2 calculated from the external quantum efficiency data (AM0 conditions) with 870 nm high-pass filter. This value reflects the potential of the GaInNAs cell for current matching and power generation in high efficiency solar cells incorporating three- or four- junctions.


  • Defects, Dilute nitrides, III-V semiconductors, Material characterization, Molecular beam epitaxy, Multijunction solar cells

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland