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Interfacing renewable energy sources for maximum power transfer-Part II: Dynamics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1771–1783
Number of pages13
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The manuscript reveals combined source-converter-load dynamics of interfacing renewable energy generators by means of terminal voltage control, aimed to track a Maximum Power Line. Control-to-input voltage transfer functions are calculated for three basic DC-DC converters based power electronic interfaces operating in both current and voltage control modes; respective stability assessment is performed as well for each arrangement. In order to generalize the derived dynamics, it is shown that photovoltaic and wind generators may be represented by similar electrical equivalent circuits, possessing comparable small-signal dynamics. It is exposed that dynamic impedance of renewable energy generators is both operating point and environmental conditions dependent and hence plays a crucial role in the combined source-converter-load dynamics from affecting system damping to causing open-loop instability in particular arrangements. Consequently, special care must be taken when designing power electronic interface intended to operate as a renewable energy generator power processor while at the same time the controller must be robust enough to ensure system stability for all expected environmental conditions. In addition, in case fixed closed-loop behavior is required through the whole operating range of the system, some kind of adaptive mechanism is required to estimate the dynamic impedance online. Several particular case examples of the proposed method presented in the literature are reviewed.


  • Dynamics, Power processing, Renewable energy, Stability

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