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Less Is More: Enhancement of Second-Harmonic Generation from Metasurfaces by Reduced Nanoparticle Density

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7709-7714
Number of pages6
JournalNano Letters
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2018
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


We investigate optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) from metasurfaces where noncentrosymmetric V-shaped gold nanoparticles are ordered into regular array configurations. In contrast to expectations, a substantial enhancement of the SHG signal is observed when the number density of the particles in the array is reduced. More specifically, by halving the number density, we obtain over 5-fold enhancement in SHG intensity. This striking result is attributed to favorable interparticle interactions mediated by the lattice, where surface-lattice resonances lead to spectral narrowing of the plasmon resonances. Importantly, however, the results cannot be explained by the improved quality of the plasmon resonance alone. Instead, the lattice interactions also lead to further enhancement of the local fields at the particles. The experimental observations agree very well with results obtained from numerical simulations including lattice interactions.


  • interparticle interactions, Metal nanoparticles, nonlinear optics, plasmonic resonances, second-harmonic generation, surface-lattice resonances

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland