Liikenteen energiatehokkuustoimenpiteet osana EU:n 2030 ilmasto‐ ja energiatavoitteiden saavuttamista: vaikutukset, kustannukset ja työnjako
Research output: Book/Report › Commissioned report › Professional
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
|Publication type||D4 Published development or research report or study|
|Name||Valtioneuvoston selvitys- ja tutkimustoiminnan julkaisusarja|
to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 40% compared to 1990 levels. The overall target is
shared between a 43% reduction by sectors covered in the EU emission trading system (EU ETS) and a
30% reduction by non-ETS sectors (including transport) compared to 2005 levels. The latter target will
be defined separately for each Member State. For Finland, an emissions reduction target up to 36% has
This study examined energy efficiency measures of the transport sector in terms of transport related
feasibility (changes in transport volumes, modal shares), economic feasibility (investment and external
costs) and GHG reduction potential. The feasibility factors constitute the preconditions for transport
emission reduction potential in Finland and consequently also for reaching the EU-level target. Secondly,
the study assessed the impacts of the measures on transport safety and public health. Finally, the roles
and responsibilities of municipalities and the state in implementation and financing of the energy efficiency
measures were analysed.
Energy efficiency measures, identified in this context, include six categories of measures: (1) promotion
of public transport in urban areas, (2) promotion of public transport over long distances, (3) promotion
of walking and cycling, (4) measures related to the urban form development, (5) promotion of alternative
propulsion for road transport and (6) promotion of low-emission passenger cars.
The results of the study show that public transport, walking and cycling measures integrated in urban
transport plans of large and medium-sized cities in Finland hold approximately a 30% CO2 emission
reduction potential between 2014 and 2030. This would indicate GHG emission reduction of approx. 0.6
million tons. The assessment covers both the impacts of modal shift and technological development of
vehicles and fuels. Measures promoting public transport, walking and cycling are however not particularly
cost-effective, if considered exclusively from the climate policy perspective. In fact, emission reductions
of these measures are rather achieved as a positive by-product of essential transport system development
(e.g. rail line or bicycle lane infrastructure investments).
Based on the study, promotion of public transport would seem to reduce traffic accidents in urban
areas, but an increase in walking and cycling to increase them. The safety of walking and cycling is
strongly dependent on the types of routes the new transport volumes are directed to and the intensity of
the growth. Public health benefits of walking and cycling are high and affect therefore significantly the
economic efficiency of the planned measures and the costs of CO2 emission reductions.
Long-distance public transport between the largest cities in Finland is currently undergoing significant
changes both in pricing and supply as a result of changes in the legislation at national and EU-level.
New operating models and services in public transport supply have emerged, and the development continues.
For the first time in decades the use of public transport is more affordable than the use of a passenger
car. Between the major urban areas there is potential with modal and market shifts for the benefit
of public transport. Assuming that about 1.5% of long-distance trips made by private car would shift to
public transport, 0.5 million tons of GHG emissions could be reduced between 2014 and 2030. Also this
estimate includes the technology development dimension.
Urbanisation and population growth in growing urban regions reduce the average mobility need of
the population in the future. Based on the zonal approach analysis, reductions in the average carkilometres
can be reached, if the new housing development will adhere to zones where daily trips can be
made on foot, by bike or by public transport. Through the measures related to the urban form development,
it is possible to reduce the amount of daily passenger-kilometres by approximately 6%, the impact
of which is around 3 - 4% (ca. 0.2 million tons) on CO2 emissions of domestic passenger transport.
Infill development is one of the most powerful measures related to urban form. It can affect both
new housing locations and creation of conditions for improved public transport services. Economic instruments
(e.g. tax deductions on commuting and road pricing) can significantly affect the location decisions
of residents and companies as well as their mobility behaviour. It is essential that urban form supports
transport measures in reducing emissions by enabling sustainable mobility choices and services.
On the basis of economic modelling, domestically produced biofuels are economically the most
favourable option of the future alternative propulsion in road transport. Biofuels do not limit economic
growth, their emission reduction potential is large and the economic value of emission reduction covers
the incurred costs of subsidies to biofuel product development, production and distribution chain. The
maximal CO2 reduction of biofuels is estimated up to more than 5 million tons (2015 to 2030), which
makes them more cost-effective (if considered exclusively from the climate policy perspective) than
measures promoting public transport, walking and cycling. CO2 limit values for new cars set by the EU
legislation and national CO2-based vehicle taxes have also been cost-effective measures. Because of
them, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of Finnish car fleet have decreased since 2008.
Planning and preparation of energy efficiency measures is often agreed between the state and municipalities
e.g. through legislation, but challenges have been identified in their implementation. Examples
of these are national-level strategies, implementation of which requires shared funding. In case the
other party lacks funding, or funding is delayed, the projects will be postponed or not realised at all. Also
deficiencies in instructions to municipalities on the implementation of energy efficiency measures (e.g.
directive on the procurement of clean vehicles) can slow down or even prevent the realisation of the projects.
The projected EU non-ETS sectors emissions reduction target (-36% by 2030) would mean a reduction
of CO2 emissions of transport by 4.6 million tonnes from the 2005 level in Finland. Based on the
results above, measures promoting public transport, walking, cycling and urban form development could
possibly cover approx. 28% (1.3 million tonnes, 2014-2030) of the total reduction target. The contribution
is clearly less than the contribution of road traffic vehicle fleet and fuel technology measures (approx.
5 million tonnes reduction, 2014-2030), but its value should not be underestimated because of other
benefits to be achieved. These include positive impacts on congestion, air quality, road safety and also
to a significant extent on public health. Technology measures contribute to, through new fleet and fuel
alternatives, the effectiveness of other energy efficiency measures, and consequently the different types
of measures complement each other in achieving the goals of sustainable urban mobility.