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Location of dispersing agent in rubber nanocomposites during mixing process

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7009-7021
Number of pages13
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2013
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


In the present work, the development of morphology and selective wetting of nanoclay and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in rubber nanocomposites were characterized qualitatively by means of the optical microscopy, TEM and AFM and quantitatively by means of the wetting concept. Carboxylated hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (XHNBR), ionic liquid and ethanol were used as dispersing agent and they show very good effect on the macro- and microdispersion of nanofillers in different rubbers. It was found that the selective wetting of filler surface by the dispersing agent and rubber matrix is controlled by thermodynamic and kinetic factors. A model basing on surface energy data of polymer components (rubber and dispersing agent) and filler was introduced in order to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium state of filler wetting, which is found to be simultaneously determined by the filler-polymer affinity and the rubber/dispersing agent mass ratio. During the mixing process a replacement process of bound polymer components takes place on the filler surface until the predicted state is reached.


  • Carbon nanotubes, Dispersing agent, Localization