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Microbiological, chemical and sensory spoilage analysis of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stored under modified atmospheres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-244
Number of pages13
JournalFood Microbiology
Early online date24 Oct 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


During fish spoilage, microbial metabolism leads to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), characteristic off-odors and eventual consumer rejection. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the development of intelligent packaging technologies by identifying and quantifying VOCs that indicate spoilage of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under atmospheres (%v/v CO2/O2/N2) 60/40/0, 60/5/35 and air. Spoilage was examined by microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses over storage time at 4 or 8 °C. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used for quantifying selected VOCs and amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the characterization of the cod microbiota. OTUs classified within the Photobacterium genus increased in relative abundance over time under all storage conditions, suggesting that Photobacterium contributed to spoilage and VOC production. The onset of exponential VOC concentration increase and sensory rejection occurred at high total plate counts (7–7.5 log). Monitoring of early spoilage thus calls for sensitivity for low VOC concentrations.

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Amplicon sequencing, Photobacterium, Sensor, SIFT-MS, Volatile organic compound

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Field of science, Statistics Finland

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