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Microstructural and abrasion wear characteristics of laser-clad tool steel coatings

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)923-933
Number of pages11
JournalSurface Engineering
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Several different tool steel grades were deposited on mild steel by the laser-cladding process with coaxial powder feeding. With bidirectional scanning pattern, most of the grades were deposited crack-free with hardness up to 1000 HV without additional preheating. In a 3-body abrasion wear study, the laser clad Ralloy® WR6 with significant portion of retained austenite exhibited superior abrasive wear resistance compared with the predominantly martensitic tool steel coatings (M2, M4, H13, HS-23, HS-30) and the reference material, Raex® Ar500 wear resistant steel. The abrasion wear resistance of austenitic–martensitic WR6 tool steel was further enhanced by the external addition of 20% volume percentage of relatively large (45–106 µm) vanadium carbides. In single point scratch tests, predominantly martensitic tool steels outperformed austenitic–martensitic tool steels and wear resistant steel. The differences in wear performances were explained by different wear mechanisms and types of contact between the abrasive and the surface.


  • 3-Body abrasion wear, Laser cladding, Metal matrix composite, Scratch test, Tool steel, Wear resistant steel

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland