Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

Nanocellulose based piezoelectric sensors

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractScientific


Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Mar 2016
EventPhysics days 2016 - University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Duration: 29 Mar 201531 Mar 2016


ConferencePhysics days 2016
Internet address


Cellulose based nanomaterials, generally known as nanocellulose [1], are interesting re-newable bio-based nanomaterials which have potential applications in material sciences, electronics and biomedical engineering and diagnostic. A strong ability to form light-weight, highly porous, entangled networks makes nanocellulose suitable substrate or membrane material for various applications, such as supercapacitors [2, 3].

It was proposed already in 1950’s, that wood has piezoelectric properties initiating from the highly crystalline assemblies of cellulose chains [4]. Experimental evidence of the piezoelectricity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was reported only very recently [5, 6]. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), produced by a mechanical homogenizing process from cel-lulose fibers, contain both crystalline and amorphous regions. CNC can be obtained from CNF by removal of amorphous regions using hydrolysis e.g. in sulfuric acid.

Here, we report the experimental results on piezoelectricity of nanocellulose films pre-pared using different methods. The piezoelectric sensitivity of prepared sensor elements is measured using in-house built measurement setup equipped with a mechanical shaker and charge amplifier [7]. A randomly oriented CNF film (prepared by pressure filtering from aqueous CNF dispersion) showed piezoelectric sensitivities of 2-7 pC/N [8, 9], which is between the piezoelectric coefficients of quartz (2.3 pC/N) and polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF, -30 pC/N). Initial results from the nanocellulose based composite films gives promises for biomedical applications of nanocellulose based piezoelectric sensors.

[1] R. J. Moon, A. Martini, J. Nairn, J. Simonsen, and J. Youngblood, Chemical Society Reviews 40(7), 3941 (2011).
[2] S. Tuukkanen, S. Lehtimäki, F. Jahangir, A.-P. Eskelinen, D. Lupo and S. Franssila, Proceedings of Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), (2014).
[3] K. Torvinen, S. Lehtimäki, J. T. Keränen, J. Sievänen, J. Vartiainen, E. Hellén, D. Lupo and S. Tuukkanen, Electronic Materials Letters 11(6), 1040 (2015).
[4] E. Fukada, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 10(2), 149 (1955).
[5] L. Csoka, I. C. Hoeger, O. J. Rojas, I. Peszlen, J. J. Pawlak and P. N. Peralta, ACS Macro Letters 1(7), 867 (2012).
[6] B. Frka-Petesic, B. Jean and L. Heux, Europhysics Letters 107(2), 28006 (2014).
[7] S. Rajala, M. Mettänen and S. Tuukkanen, IEEE Sensors (accepted for publication).
[8] S. Rajala, M. Vuoriluoto, O. J. Rojas, S. Franssila and S. Tuukkanen, Proceedings of IMEKO 2015 World Congress “Measurement in Research and Industry”.
[9] S. Tuukkanen and S. Rajala, IEEE Sensors 2015 Conference Proceedings.