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Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models

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Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models. / Åkerblom, Markku; Raumonen, Pasi; Casella, Eric; Disney, Mathias I.; Danson, F. Mark; Gaulton, Rachel; Schofield, Lucy A.; Kaasalainen, Mikko.

In: Interface Focus, Vol. 8, No. 2, 20170045, 06.04.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Harvard

Åkerblom, M, Raumonen, P, Casella, E, Disney, MI, Danson, FM, Gaulton, R, Schofield, LA & Kaasalainen, M 2018, 'Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models', Interface Focus, vol. 8, no. 2, 20170045. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0045

APA

Åkerblom, M., Raumonen, P., Casella, E., Disney, M. I., Danson, F. M., Gaulton, R., ... Kaasalainen, M. (2018). Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models. Interface Focus, 8(2), [20170045]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0045

Vancouver

Åkerblom M, Raumonen P, Casella E, Disney MI, Danson FM, Gaulton R et al. Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models. Interface Focus. 2018 Apr 6;8(2). 20170045. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2017.0045

Author

Åkerblom, Markku ; Raumonen, Pasi ; Casella, Eric ; Disney, Mathias I. ; Danson, F. Mark ; Gaulton, Rachel ; Schofield, Lucy A. ; Kaasalainen, Mikko. / Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models. In: Interface Focus. 2018 ; Vol. 8, No. 2.

Bibtex - Download

@article{32e8687a73194d349bb4e2795f93f92e,
title = "Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models",
abstract = "We present an algorithm and an implementation to insert broadleaves or needleleaves into a quantitative structure model according to an arbitrary distribution, and a data structure to store the required information efficiently. A structure model contains the geometry and branching structure of a tree. The purpose of this work is to offer a tool for making more realistic simulations of tree models with leaves, particularly for tree models developed from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements. We demonstrate leaf insertion using cylinder-based structure models, but the associated software implementation is written in a way that enables the easy use of other types of structure models. Distributions controlling leaf location, size and angles as well as the shape of individual leaves are user definable, allowing any type of distribution. The leaf generation process consist of two stages, the first of which generates individual leaf geometry following the input distributions, while in the other stage intersections are prevented by carrying out transformations when required. Initial testing was carried out on English oak trees to demonstrate the approach and to assess the required computational resources. Depending on the size and complexity of the tree, leaf generation takes between 6 and 18 min. Various leaf area density distributions were defined, and the resulting leaf covers were compared with manual leaf harvesting measurements. The results are not conclusive, but they show great potential for the method. In the future, if our method is demonstrated to work well for TLS data from multiple tree types, the approach is likely to be very useful for three-dimensional structure and radiative transfer simulation applications, including remote sensing, ecology and forestry, among others.",
keywords = "Laser scanning, Leaf distribution, Leaf insertion, Quantitative structure model, Tree reconstruction",
author = "Markku {\AA}kerblom and Pasi Raumonen and Eric Casella and Disney, {Mathias I.} and Danson, {F. Mark} and Rachel Gaulton and Schofield, {Lucy A.} and Mikko Kaasalainen",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1098/rsfs.2017.0045",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Interface Focus",
issn = "2042-8898",
publisher = "Royal Society Publishing",
number = "2",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Non-intersecting leaf insertion algorithm for tree structure models

AU - Åkerblom, Markku

AU - Raumonen, Pasi

AU - Casella, Eric

AU - Disney, Mathias I.

AU - Danson, F. Mark

AU - Gaulton, Rachel

AU - Schofield, Lucy A.

AU - Kaasalainen, Mikko

PY - 2018/4/6

Y1 - 2018/4/6

N2 - We present an algorithm and an implementation to insert broadleaves or needleleaves into a quantitative structure model according to an arbitrary distribution, and a data structure to store the required information efficiently. A structure model contains the geometry and branching structure of a tree. The purpose of this work is to offer a tool for making more realistic simulations of tree models with leaves, particularly for tree models developed from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements. We demonstrate leaf insertion using cylinder-based structure models, but the associated software implementation is written in a way that enables the easy use of other types of structure models. Distributions controlling leaf location, size and angles as well as the shape of individual leaves are user definable, allowing any type of distribution. The leaf generation process consist of two stages, the first of which generates individual leaf geometry following the input distributions, while in the other stage intersections are prevented by carrying out transformations when required. Initial testing was carried out on English oak trees to demonstrate the approach and to assess the required computational resources. Depending on the size and complexity of the tree, leaf generation takes between 6 and 18 min. Various leaf area density distributions were defined, and the resulting leaf covers were compared with manual leaf harvesting measurements. The results are not conclusive, but they show great potential for the method. In the future, if our method is demonstrated to work well for TLS data from multiple tree types, the approach is likely to be very useful for three-dimensional structure and radiative transfer simulation applications, including remote sensing, ecology and forestry, among others.

AB - We present an algorithm and an implementation to insert broadleaves or needleleaves into a quantitative structure model according to an arbitrary distribution, and a data structure to store the required information efficiently. A structure model contains the geometry and branching structure of a tree. The purpose of this work is to offer a tool for making more realistic simulations of tree models with leaves, particularly for tree models developed from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements. We demonstrate leaf insertion using cylinder-based structure models, but the associated software implementation is written in a way that enables the easy use of other types of structure models. Distributions controlling leaf location, size and angles as well as the shape of individual leaves are user definable, allowing any type of distribution. The leaf generation process consist of two stages, the first of which generates individual leaf geometry following the input distributions, while in the other stage intersections are prevented by carrying out transformations when required. Initial testing was carried out on English oak trees to demonstrate the approach and to assess the required computational resources. Depending on the size and complexity of the tree, leaf generation takes between 6 and 18 min. Various leaf area density distributions were defined, and the resulting leaf covers were compared with manual leaf harvesting measurements. The results are not conclusive, but they show great potential for the method. In the future, if our method is demonstrated to work well for TLS data from multiple tree types, the approach is likely to be very useful for three-dimensional structure and radiative transfer simulation applications, including remote sensing, ecology and forestry, among others.

KW - Laser scanning

KW - Leaf distribution

KW - Leaf insertion

KW - Quantitative structure model

KW - Tree reconstruction

U2 - 10.1098/rsfs.2017.0045

DO - 10.1098/rsfs.2017.0045

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Interface Focus

JF - Interface Focus

SN - 2042-8898

IS - 2

M1 - 20170045

ER -