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Novel Online Diagnostic Analysis for In-Flight Particle Properties in Cold Spraying

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423–432
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Thermal Spray Technology
Issue number3
Early online date11 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


In cold spraying, powder particles are accelerated by preheated supersonic gas stream to high velocities and sprayed on a substrate. The particle velocities depend on the equipment design and process parameters, e.g., on the type of the process gas and its pressure and temperature. These, in turn, affect the coating structure and the properties. The particle velocities in cold spraying are high, and the particle temperatures are low, which can, therefore, be a challenge for the diagnostic methods. A novel optical online diagnostic system, HiWatch HR, will open new possibilities for measuring particle in-flight properties in cold spray processes. The system employs an imaging measurement technique called S-PTV (sizing-particle tracking velocimetry), first introduced in this research. This technique enables an accurate particle size measurement also for small diameter particles with a large powder volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the velocities of metallic particles sprayed with HPCS and LPCS systems and with varying process parameters. The measured in-flight particle properties were further linked to the resulting coating properties. Furthermore, the camera was able to provide information about variations during the spraying, e.g., fluctuating powder feeding, which is important from the process control and quality control point of view.


  • cold spraying, diagnostics, in-flight properties, particle size, particle velocity

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland