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Optimization of emission reducing energy retrofits in Finnish apartment buildings

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCLIMA 2019 Congress
Subtitle of host publicationBucharest, Romania, May 26-29, 2019
PublisherEDP Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 13 Aug 2019
Publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventREHVA World Congress - Bucharest, Romania
Duration: 26 May 201929 May 2019

Publication series

NameE3S Web of Conferences
ISSN (Print)2555-0403


ConferenceREHVA World Congress


This study examined the cost-optimality of energy renovation on Finnish apartment buildings of different ages, built according to different energy performance requirements. Multi-objective optimization was utilized to minimize both CO2 emissions and life cycle cost (LCC). IDA-ICE simulations were performed to obtain the hourly heating demand of the buildings. Four building age classes and three heating systems (district heating, exhaust air heat pump and ground-source heat pump) were separately optimized. With district heating, it was possible to reduce emissions by 11%, while also reducing LCC. With heat pumps cost-savings could be achieved while reducing emissions by over 49%. With maximal (not cost-effective) investments, emissions could be reduced by more than 70% in all examined cases. In all cases, the cheapest solutions included solar electricity and sewage heat recovery. In old buildings, window upgrades and additional roof insulation were cost-effective. In new buildings, demand-based ventilation was included in all optimal solutions.

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland