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Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing

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Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing. / Tuominen, Marjukka; Mäkelä, Jaakko; Yasir, Muhammad; Dahl, Johnny; Granroth, Sari; Lehtiö, Juha Pekka; Félix, Roberto; Laukkanen, Pekka; Kuzmin, Mikhail; Laitinen, Mikko; Punkkinen, Marko P.J.; Hedman, Hannu Pekka; Punkkinen, Risto; Polojärvi, Ville; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Tukiainen, Antti; Guina, Mircea; Kokko, Kalevi.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 10, No. 51, 26.12.2018, p. 44932-44940.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Harvard

Tuominen, M, Mäkelä, J, Yasir, M, Dahl, J, Granroth, S, Lehtiö, JP, Félix, R, Laukkanen, P, Kuzmin, M, Laitinen, M, Punkkinen, MPJ, Hedman, HP, Punkkinen, R, Polojärvi, V, Lyytikäinen, J, Tukiainen, A, Guina, M & Kokko, K 2018, 'Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing' ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 10, no. 51, pp. 44932-44940. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b17843

APA

Tuominen, M., Mäkelä, J., Yasir, M., Dahl, J., Granroth, S., Lehtiö, J. P., ... Kokko, K. (2018). Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 10(51), 44932-44940. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b17843

Vancouver

Tuominen M, Mäkelä J, Yasir M, Dahl J, Granroth S, Lehtiö JP et al. Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2018 Dec 26;10(51):44932-44940. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b17843

Author

Tuominen, Marjukka ; Mäkelä, Jaakko ; Yasir, Muhammad ; Dahl, Johnny ; Granroth, Sari ; Lehtiö, Juha Pekka ; Félix, Roberto ; Laukkanen, Pekka ; Kuzmin, Mikhail ; Laitinen, Mikko ; Punkkinen, Marko P.J. ; Hedman, Hannu Pekka ; Punkkinen, Risto ; Polojärvi, Ville ; Lyytikäinen, Jari ; Tukiainen, Antti ; Guina, Mircea ; Kokko, Kalevi. / Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing. In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 51. pp. 44932-44940.

Bibtex - Download

@article{0d1cffd449524a31b4b71564af4a4bdd,
title = "Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing",
abstract = "InAs crystals are emerging materials for various devices like radio frequency transistors and infrared sensors. Control of oxidation-induced changes is essential for decreasing amounts of the harmful InAs surface (or interface) defects because it is hard to avoid the energetically favored oxidation of InAs surface parts in device processing. We have characterized atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3/InAs interfaces, preoxidized differently, with synchrotron hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis. The chemical environment and core-level shifts are clarified for well-embedded InAs interfaces (12 nm Al2O3) to avoid, in particular, effects of a significant potential change at the vacuum-solid interface. High-resolution As 3d spectra reveal that the Al2O3/InAs interface, which was sputter-cleaned before ALD, includes +1.0 eV shift, whereas As 3d of the preoxidized (3 × 1)-O interface exhibits a shift of -0.51 eV. The measurements also indicate that an As2O3 type structure is not crucial in controlling defect densities. Regarding In 4d measurements, the sputtered InAs interface includes only a +0.29 eV shift, while the In 4d shift around -0.3 eV is found to be inherent for the crystalline oxidized interfaces. Thus, the negative shifts, which have been usually associated with dangling bonds, are not necessarily an indication of such point defects as previously expected. In contrast, the negative shifts can arise from bonding with O atoms. Therefore, specific care should be directed in determining the bulk-component positions in photoelectron studies. Finally, we present an approach to transfer the InAs oxidation results to a device process of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) using an As-rich III-V surface and In deposition. The approach is found to decrease a gate leakage current of HEMT without losing the gate controllability.",
keywords = "atomic layer deposition, III-V semiconductor, InAs, oxidation, photoelectron, synchrotron",
author = "Marjukka Tuominen and Jaakko M{\"a}kel{\"a} and Muhammad Yasir and Johnny Dahl and Sari Granroth and Lehti{\"o}, {Juha Pekka} and Roberto F{\'e}lix and Pekka Laukkanen and Mikhail Kuzmin and Mikko Laitinen and Punkkinen, {Marko P.J.} and Hedman, {Hannu Pekka} and Risto Punkkinen and Ville Poloj{\"a}rvi and Jari Lyytik{\"a}inen and Antti Tukiainen and Mircea Guina and Kalevi Kokko",
note = "EXT={"}M{\"a}kel{\"a}, Jaakko{"} EXT={"}Kuzmin, Mikhail{"} EXT={"}Laukkanen, Pekka{"}",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "26",
doi = "10.1021/acsami.8b17843",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "44932--44940",
journal = "ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces",
issn = "1944-8244",
publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
number = "51",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Oxidation-Induced Changes in the ALD-Al2O3/InAs(100) Interface and Control of the Changes for Device Processing

AU - Tuominen, Marjukka

AU - Mäkelä, Jaakko

AU - Yasir, Muhammad

AU - Dahl, Johnny

AU - Granroth, Sari

AU - Lehtiö, Juha Pekka

AU - Félix, Roberto

AU - Laukkanen, Pekka

AU - Kuzmin, Mikhail

AU - Laitinen, Mikko

AU - Punkkinen, Marko P.J.

AU - Hedman, Hannu Pekka

AU - Punkkinen, Risto

AU - Polojärvi, Ville

AU - Lyytikäinen, Jari

AU - Tukiainen, Antti

AU - Guina, Mircea

AU - Kokko, Kalevi

N1 - EXT="Mäkelä, Jaakko" EXT="Kuzmin, Mikhail" EXT="Laukkanen, Pekka"

PY - 2018/12/26

Y1 - 2018/12/26

N2 - InAs crystals are emerging materials for various devices like radio frequency transistors and infrared sensors. Control of oxidation-induced changes is essential for decreasing amounts of the harmful InAs surface (or interface) defects because it is hard to avoid the energetically favored oxidation of InAs surface parts in device processing. We have characterized atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3/InAs interfaces, preoxidized differently, with synchrotron hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis. The chemical environment and core-level shifts are clarified for well-embedded InAs interfaces (12 nm Al2O3) to avoid, in particular, effects of a significant potential change at the vacuum-solid interface. High-resolution As 3d spectra reveal that the Al2O3/InAs interface, which was sputter-cleaned before ALD, includes +1.0 eV shift, whereas As 3d of the preoxidized (3 × 1)-O interface exhibits a shift of -0.51 eV. The measurements also indicate that an As2O3 type structure is not crucial in controlling defect densities. Regarding In 4d measurements, the sputtered InAs interface includes only a +0.29 eV shift, while the In 4d shift around -0.3 eV is found to be inherent for the crystalline oxidized interfaces. Thus, the negative shifts, which have been usually associated with dangling bonds, are not necessarily an indication of such point defects as previously expected. In contrast, the negative shifts can arise from bonding with O atoms. Therefore, specific care should be directed in determining the bulk-component positions in photoelectron studies. Finally, we present an approach to transfer the InAs oxidation results to a device process of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) using an As-rich III-V surface and In deposition. The approach is found to decrease a gate leakage current of HEMT without losing the gate controllability.

AB - InAs crystals are emerging materials for various devices like radio frequency transistors and infrared sensors. Control of oxidation-induced changes is essential for decreasing amounts of the harmful InAs surface (or interface) defects because it is hard to avoid the energetically favored oxidation of InAs surface parts in device processing. We have characterized atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3/InAs interfaces, preoxidized differently, with synchrotron hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis. The chemical environment and core-level shifts are clarified for well-embedded InAs interfaces (12 nm Al2O3) to avoid, in particular, effects of a significant potential change at the vacuum-solid interface. High-resolution As 3d spectra reveal that the Al2O3/InAs interface, which was sputter-cleaned before ALD, includes +1.0 eV shift, whereas As 3d of the preoxidized (3 × 1)-O interface exhibits a shift of -0.51 eV. The measurements also indicate that an As2O3 type structure is not crucial in controlling defect densities. Regarding In 4d measurements, the sputtered InAs interface includes only a +0.29 eV shift, while the In 4d shift around -0.3 eV is found to be inherent for the crystalline oxidized interfaces. Thus, the negative shifts, which have been usually associated with dangling bonds, are not necessarily an indication of such point defects as previously expected. In contrast, the negative shifts can arise from bonding with O atoms. Therefore, specific care should be directed in determining the bulk-component positions in photoelectron studies. Finally, we present an approach to transfer the InAs oxidation results to a device process of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) using an As-rich III-V surface and In deposition. The approach is found to decrease a gate leakage current of HEMT without losing the gate controllability.

KW - atomic layer deposition

KW - III-V semiconductor

KW - InAs

KW - oxidation

KW - photoelectron

KW - synchrotron

U2 - 10.1021/acsami.8b17843

DO - 10.1021/acsami.8b17843

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 44932

EP - 44940

JO - ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

JF - ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

SN - 1944-8244

IS - 51

ER -