Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

PESTEL Analysis of Hacktivism Campaign Motivations

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSecure IT Systems - 23rd Nordic Conference, NordSec 2018
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9783030036379
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventNordic Conference on Secure IT Systems - Oslo, Norway
Duration: 28 Nov 201830 Nov 2018

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


ConferenceNordic Conference on Secure IT Systems


A political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, environment and legal (PESTEL) analysis is a framework or tool used to analyse and monitor the macro-environmental factors that have an impact on an organisation. The results identify threats and weaknesses which are used in a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis. In this paper the PESTEL framework was utilized to categorize hacktivism motivations for attack campaigns against certain companies, governments or industries. Our study is based on empirical evidence: of thirty-three hacktivism attack campaigns in manifesto level. Then, the targets of these campaigns were analysed and studied accordingly. As a result, we claim that connecting cyberattacks to motivations permits organizations to determine their external cyberattack risks, allowing them to perform more accurate risk-modeling.


  • Cyberattack, Hacktivism, Online anonymity, PESTEL analysis, Political activism, Risk modeling, Security, Strategic management

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland