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Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-304
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2016
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 1014 # (kg fuel)-1, 6-40 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)-1, for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland