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Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland

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Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland. / Pirjola, Liisa; Dittrich, Aleš; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Järvinen, Anssi; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 50, No. 1, 05.01.2016, p. 294-304.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Harvard

Pirjola, L, Dittrich, A, Niemi, JV, Saarikoski, S, Timonen, H, Kuuluvainen, H, Järvinen, A, Kousa, A, Rönkkö, T & Hillamo, R 2016, 'Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland', Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 294-304. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04105

APA

Pirjola, L., Dittrich, A., Niemi, J. V., Saarikoski, S., Timonen, H., Kuuluvainen, H., ... Hillamo, R. (2016). Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(1), 294-304. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04105

Vancouver

Pirjola L, Dittrich A, Niemi JV, Saarikoski S, Timonen H, Kuuluvainen H et al. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland. Environmental Science and Technology. 2016 Jan 5;50(1):294-304. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04105

Author

Pirjola, Liisa ; Dittrich, Aleš ; Niemi, Jarkko V. ; Saarikoski, Sanna ; Timonen, Hilkka ; Kuuluvainen, Heino ; Järvinen, Anssi ; Kousa, Anu ; Rönkkö, Topi ; Hillamo, Risto. / Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2016 ; Vol. 50, No. 1. pp. 294-304.

Bibtex - Download

@article{a492dc48a2644057ba80275bdc9d618b,
title = "Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland",
abstract = "Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 1014 # (kg fuel)-1, 6-40 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)-1, for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions.",
author = "Liisa Pirjola and Aleš Dittrich and Niemi, {Jarkko V.} and Sanna Saarikoski and Hilkka Timonen and Heino Kuuluvainen and Anssi J{\"a}rvinen and Anu Kousa and Topi R{\"o}nkk{\"o} and Risto Hillamo",
year = "2016",
month = "1",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1021/acs.est.5b04105",
language = "English",
volume = "50",
pages = "294--304",
journal = "Environmental Science and Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "1",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland

AU - Pirjola, Liisa

AU - Dittrich, Aleš

AU - Niemi, Jarkko V.

AU - Saarikoski, Sanna

AU - Timonen, Hilkka

AU - Kuuluvainen, Heino

AU - Järvinen, Anssi

AU - Kousa, Anu

AU - Rönkkö, Topi

AU - Hillamo, Risto

PY - 2016/1/5

Y1 - 2016/1/5

N2 - Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 1014 # (kg fuel)-1, 6-40 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)-1, for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions.

AB - Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 1014 # (kg fuel)-1, 6-40 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)-1, 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)-1, for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions.

U2 - 10.1021/acs.est.5b04105

DO - 10.1021/acs.est.5b04105

M3 - Article

VL - 50

SP - 294

EP - 304

JO - Environmental Science and Technology

JF - Environmental Science and Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 1

ER -