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Revealing Substructure Through SEM-Based Gallium Enhanced Microscopy for EN AW-6016 Alloy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-91
Number of pages6
JournalMetallography, Microstructure, and Analysis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


A relatively contemporary technique for analysis of the grain boundaries and dislocation sub-grain boundaries popularly known as gallium enhanced microscopy (GEM) has been reported to be used for rolled sheets of EN AW-6016 alloy. The deep-drawing process has been performed on a rolled sheet at room temperature and 250 °C with drawing ratio of 2.0. With the need to explore the in-depth microstructural analysis of the deep-drawn samples, a more efficient method in terms of efficiency and exposure of substructure compared to the conventional techniques has been introduced and discussed. The introduction of gallium (Ga) gives an enhanced visibility of grain boundaries and low-resolution grain misorientations. A comparative study between the results of electron backscattering diffraction and GEM-SEM technology illustrated more reliable and superior results after the introduction of Ga. The diffusion of Ga takes place through the grains in the sample at a rate of nearly 7.2 μm/s and shows the reduction in time required to expose the sub-grains when compared with the aforementioned techniques.

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Deep drawing, Gallium enhanced microscopy, Liquid metal embrittlement, Rolled sheet, Substructure

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland