Ab initio study of the surface properties of austenitic stainless steel alloys

Using ab initio calculations we investigated the surface energies of paramagnetic Fe1 - c - nCrcNin random alloys within the concentration range of 0.12 ≤ c ≤ 0.32 and 0.04 ≤ n ≤ 0.32. These alloys crystallize mainly in the face centred cubic (fcc) structure and constitute the main building blocks of austenitic stainless steels. It is shown that all alloys have the lowest surface energies along the most close packed crystal orientation, namely the fcc (111) surfaces. The amount of Ni seems to have little effect on the surface energy, while almost all composition-driven change may be attributed to the changes in the Cr content. Within the studied compositional range, the change of the surface energy with the composition is of the order of 10%. Trends of the surface energy can be related to the magnetic structure of surfaces. Using the total energy as a function of the concentration, we determine the effective chemical potentials in bulk and at the surface, which can be used to estimate the surface segregation energies.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Lappeenranta University of Technology, Aalto University, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turun Yliopisto/Turun Biomateriaalikeskus, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Contributors: Pitkänen, H., Alatalo, M., Puisto, A., Ropo, M., Kokko, K., Vitos, L.
Number of pages: 5
Pages: 190-194
Publication date: Mar 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surcface Science
Volume: 609
ISSN (Print): 0039-6028
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 3.3 SJR 0.829 SNIP 0.787
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Alloy surface, Austenitic, FeCrNi, First-principles calculation, Stainless steel, Surface energy
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84873060451

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abrasive-Erosive Wear of Thermally Sprayed Coatings from Experimental and Commercial Cr3C2-Based Powders

In this paper, high-velocity oxy-fuel sprayed coatings from experimental Cr3C2-Ni powder produced by mechanically activated thermal synthesis and disintegrator milling are compared with coatings from commercial Cr3C2-NiCr powder under room- and elevated-temperature abrasive-erosive wear (AEW) conditions. In a room-temperature AEW test, the coating made from the experimental powder had wear rates that were 1.1-5.3 times higher than the coating from the commercial powder; this difference was the lowest at the highest impact velocity (80 m s−1). Under AEW tests at elevated temperature (300 and 550 °C), the coating made from the experimental powder exhibited wear rates that were 1.2-2.8 times higher in comparison with that made from the commercial powder, but this difference was smaller under an oblique impact angle (30°) and higher temperature conditions. The reasons for the lower resistance against AEW of the coating made from the experimental powder were found to be its lower ability to resist plastic indentation and deformation as well as lower indentation fracture toughness at room temperature, weaker bonding between the matrix and reinforcement and probably lower mechanical properties as well as unfavourable residual stresses at elevated temperatures.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Ensto Ensek AS, Tallinn University of Technology
Contributors: Sarjas, H., Surzhenkov, A., Juhani, K., Antonov, M., Adoberg, E., Kulu, P., Viljus, M., Traksmaa, R., Matikainen, V., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 2020–2029
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 13 Sep 2017

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 26
Issue number: 8
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 3.3 SJR 0.688 SNIP 1.209
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: abrasive-erosive wear, CrC-based cermet, elevated temperature, mechanically activated thermal synthesis, room temperature, thermal spraying
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85029407112

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Accurate Binding of Sodium and Calcium to a POPC Bilayer by Effective Inclusion of Electronic Polarization

Binding affinities and stoichiometries of Na+ and Ca2+ ions to phospholipid bilayers are of paramount significance in the properties and functionality of cellular membranes. Current estimates of binding affinities and stoichiometries of cations are, however, inconsistent due to limitations in the available experimental and computational methods. In this work, we improve the description of the binding details of Na+ and Ca2+ ions to a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer by implicitly including electronic polarization as a mean field correction, known as the electronic continuum correction (ECC). This is applied by scaling the partial charges of a selected state-of-the-art POPC lipid model for molecular dynamics simulations. Our improved ECC-POPC model reproduces not only the experimentally measured structural parameters for the ion-free membrane, but also the response of lipid headgroup to a strongly bound cationic amphiphile, as well as the binding affinities of Na+ and Ca2+ ions. With our new model, we observe on the one side negligible binding of Na+ ions to POPC bilayer, while on the other side stronger interactions of Ca2+ primarily with phosphate oxygens, which is in agreement with the previous interpretations of the experimental spectroscopic data. The present model results in Ca2+ ions forming complexes with one to three POPC molecules with almost equal probabilities, suggesting more complex binding stoichiometries than those from simple models used to interpret the NMR data previously. The results of this work pave the way to quantitative molecular simulations with realistic electrostatic interactions of complex biochemical systems at cellular membranes.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Research group: Biological Physics and Soft Matter, Research area: Computational Physics, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Helsinki Institute of Biotechnology
Contributors: Melcr, J., Martinez-Seara, H., Nencini, R., Kolafa, J., Jungwirth, P., Ollila, O. H. S.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 4546-4557
Publication date: 26 Apr 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume: 122
Issue number: 16
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 5.8 SJR 1.109 SNIP 0.979
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry

Bibliographical note

EXT=”Martinez-Seara, Hector”
EXT="Ollila, O. H. Samuli"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85046019210

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Accurate description of aqueous carbonate ions: An effective polarization model verified by neutron scattering

The carbonate ion plays a central role in the biochemical formation of the shells of aquatic life, which is an important path for carbon dioxide sequestration. Given the vital role of carbonate in this and other contexts, it is imperative to develop accurate models for such a high charge density ion. As a divalent ion, carbonate has a strong polarizing effect on surrounding water molecules. This raises the question whether it is possible to describe accurately such systems without including polarization. It has recently been suggested the lack of electronic polarization in nonpolarizable water models can be effectively compensated by introducing an electronic dielectric continuum, which is with respect to the forces between atoms equivalent to rescaling the ionic charges. Given how widely nonpolarizable models are used to model electrolyte solutions, establishing the experimental validity of this suggestion is imperative. Here, we examine a stringent test for such models: a comparison of the difference of the neutron scattering structure factors of K 2CO3 vs KNO3 solutions and that predicted by molecular dynamics simulations for various models of the same systems. We compare standard nonpolarizable simulations in SPC/E water to analogous simulations with effective ion charges, as well as simulations in explicitly polarizable POL3 water (which, however, has only about half the experimental polarizability). It is found that the simulation with rescaled charges is in a very good agreement with the experimental data, which is significantly better than for the nonpolarizable simulation and even better than for the explicitly polarizable POL3 model.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Contributors: Mason, P. E., Wernersson, E., Jungwirth, P.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 8145-8153
Publication date: 19 Jul 2012
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 116
Issue number: 28
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2012): CiteScore 6.7 SJR 1.943 SNIP 1.243
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84863696122

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Accurate description of calcium solvation in concentrated aqueous solutions

Calcium is one of the biologically most important ions; however, its accurate description by classical molecular dynamics simulations is complicated by strong electrostatic and polarization interactions with surroundings due to its divalent nature. Here, we explore the recently suggested approach for effectively accounting for polarization effects via ionic charge rescaling and develop a new and accurate parametrization of the calcium dication. Comparison to neutron scattering and viscosity measurements demonstrates that our model allows for an accurate description of concentrated aqueous calcium chloride solutions. The present model should find broad use in efficient and accurate modeling of calcium in aqueous environments, such as those encountered in biological and technological applications.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Contributors: Kohagen, M., Mason, P. E., Jungwirth, P.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 7902-7909
Publication date: 17 Jul 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 118
Issue number: 28
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.449 SNIP 1.13
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Medicine(all)
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84904581115

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

A comparison of relative displacement fields between numerical predictions and experimental results in fretting contact

In this paper, a comparison is made between calculated and measured displacements from a complete contact fretting test device. An experimental technique based on digital image correlation was used to measure the local displacement field at the contact interface. The material of the fretting specimen and pads was quenched and tempered steel. The effect of test device compliances and rigid body movement was minimized by measuring displacements very close to the contact interface. The measured displacements were successfully compared to the computed displacements of a corresponding finite element model. The relative slip amplitude in partial slip conditions, slip distribution across the contact, length of the slip region, and accumulated slip distribution, were compared. Relative slip decreases markedly with increasing normal load and friction coefficient. The friction coefficient was calibrated and determined as a function of loading cycles of fretting fatigue tests with two normal loads. The friction coefficient was found to increase at the beginning of tests and stabilize after about 1000 cycles, which is in agreement with general observations.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Wärtsilä Finland Oy
Contributors: Juoksukangas, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A.
Number of pages: 15
Pages: 1273-1287
Publication date: 1 Oct 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Proceedings of the institution of Mechanical Engineers Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology
Volume: 230
Issue number: 10
ISSN (Print): 1350-6501
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 2.2 SJR 0.691 SNIP 0.944
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Digital image correlation, finite element method, friction coefficient, relative displacement, slip
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84987650902

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

A comparison of rheology and FTIR in the study of polypropylene and polystyrene photodegradation

Rheology and FTIR spectroscopy are compared as methods to study the degree of photodegradation in polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) sheets. The materials are hot pressed, artificially photo-aged with fluorescent lights for 4-2048 h and then measured with a rotational rheometer and FTIR. Both materials show a tendency for chain scission which can be seen as a reduction in viscosity. Changes in PP can be observed with both methods after 256 h of irradiation. Changes in PS become significant in rheology after 64 h but in FTIR only after 1024 h of irradiation. Due to the different chemical nature of the materials, the degradation of PS is rather linear with exposure, whereas the degradation of PP is more exponential. Using the zero shear viscosities obtained through extrapolations of the Cole-Cole and Carreau-Yasuda models, relative molecular weights are estimated with the aid of the power-law relationship between these two. These results are compared with the carbonyl indices determined from the FTIR spectra. Rheology is found to be a viable alternative for FTIR in certain situations.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Supramolecular photochemistry, Research area: Sustainable Machine Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Systems, Tampere Univ Technol, Tampere University of Technology, Dept Chem & Bioengn
Contributors: Mylläri, V., Ruoko, T., Syrjälä, S.
Number of pages: 6
Publication date: 1 Jul 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume: 132
Issue number: 28
Article number: 42246
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3.6 SJR 0.587 SNIP 0.846
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Materials Chemistry, Polymers and Plastics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Chemistry(all)
Keywords: aging, degradation, rheology, thermoplastics, PHOTOOXIDATION, FILMS, PHOTOLYSIS

Bibliographical note

ORG=mol,0.7
ORG=keb,0.2
ORG=mei,0.1

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84928363110

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Active packaging by paper coating

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Paper Converting and Packaging, Umea University, BillerudKorsnäs, Karlstad University
Contributors: Jarnstrom, L., Johansson, K., Kuusipalo, J., Jonsson, L.
Number of pages: 5
Pages: 88-92
Publication date: 1 Jan 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: 14th TAPPI Advanced Coating Symposium 2016
Publisher: TAPPI Press
ISBN (Electronic): 9781510877658
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Media Technology
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85062284627

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Adjustable wetting properties of paperboard by liquid flame spray process

Liquid flame spray process (LFS) was used for depositing TiOx and SiOx nanoparticles on paperboard to control wetting properties of the surface. By the LFS process it is possible to create either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic surfaces. Changes in the wettability are related to structural properties and chemical composition of the surface, which were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface properties can be ascribed as a correlation between wetting properties of the paperboard and the surface texture created by nanoparticles. Surfaces can be produced inline in a one step roll-to-roll process without need for additional modifications. Furthermore, functional surfaces with adjustable hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity can be fabricated simply by choosing appropriate liquid precursors.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Department of Physics, Abo Akad Univ, Abo Akademi University, Dept Phys, Institute of Paper Converting, Aerosol Physics Laboratory
Contributors: Stepien, M., Saarinen, J. J., Teisala, H., Tuominen, M., Aromaa, M., Kuusipalo, J., Mäkelä, J., Toivakka, M.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 80-88
Publication date: 2010

Host publication information

Title of host publication: 11th Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium Proceedings: The Latest Advances in Coating Research and Development
ISBN (Print): 1595102035, 9781595102034
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79951939367

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Advanced coatings by novel high-kinetic thermal spray processes

Thermal spraying includes a group of coating processes in which metallic and non-metallic materials are spray deposited as fine particles in a molten or semi-molten condition, or even in fully solid state to form a coating. Thermal spraying allows deposition of relatively thick coatings, from some tens of micrometers up to several millimeters in thickness. Thermally sprayed coatings are used in different applications including protective and functional coatings in mechanical engineering, energy technology, biomedical, steel, automotive and aerospace technologies and in many other industrial sectors. Novel high-kinetic spray processes, e.g., the high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) technology are the latest developments in the area and therefore they are actively studied in the framework of the Hybrid Materials research program in collaboration with Finnish industrial and research partners. Novel multifunctional coatings are under development for specific industrial applications.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D1 Article in a trade journal
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering
Contributors: Matikainen, V., Koivuluoto, H., Milanti, A., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 5
Pages: 46-50
Publication date: 9 Feb 2015
Peer-reviewed: Unknown

Publication information

Journal: Materia
Volume: 73
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 1459-9694
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: thermal spraying, HVOF, HVAF

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional

A Finite Cluster Approach to the Electron-Hole Pair Damping of the Adsorbate Vibration: CO Adsorbed on Cu(100)

Abstract: A finite cluster method is applied to describe the energy transfer from the adsorbate vibrations to the electron-hole pair excitations. For CO stretch vibration on Cu(100) surface a value of 0.5 meV is found for the consequent damping (corresponding to the lifetime of 1.3·10 -12 s) in an agreement with a recently measured vibrational line width. The mechanism behind the electron-hole pair excitations is found to be charge oscillations between the molecular 2π * resonance and the substrate, caused by the molecular vibration. Cluster size effects have been found to be negligible.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Chalmers University of Technology, University of California, Santa Barbara
Contributors: Rantala, T. T., Rosén, A., Hellsing, B.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 173-181
Publication date: 1986
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis
Volume: 26
Issue number: C
ISSN (Print): 0167-2991
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Catalysis, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 77956976821

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Ambient-Pressure XPS Study of a Ni-Fe Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

Chemical analysis of solid-liquid interfaces under electrochemical conditions has recently become feasible due to the development of new synchrotron radiation techniques. Here we report the use of "tender" X-ray ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) to characterize a thin film of Ni-Fe oxyhydroxide electrodeposited on Au as the working electrode at different applied potentials in 0.1 M KOH as the electrolyte. Our results show that the as-prepared 7 nm thick Ni-Fe (50% Fe) film contains Fe and Ni in both their metallic as well as oxidized states, and undergoes further oxidation when the sample is subjected to electrochemical oxidation-reduction cycles. Metallic Fe is oxidized to Fe3+ and metallic Ni to Ni2+/3+. This work shows that it is possible to monitor the chemical nature of the Ni-Fe catalyst as a function of potential when the corresponding current densities are small. This allows for operando measurements just above the onset of OER; however, current densities as they are desired in photoelectrochemical devices (∼1-10 mA cm-2) could not be achieved in this work, due to ohmic losses in the thin electrolyte film. We use a two-dimensional model to describe the spatial distribution of the electrochemical potential, current density, and pH as a function of the position above the electrolyte meniscus, to provide guidance toward enabling the acquisition of operando APXPS at high current density. The shifts in binding energy of water with applied potential predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental values.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Optoelectronics Research Centre, Research group: Surface Science, SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Berkeley, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials and Corrosion Engineering, Exponent, Inc., Polymer Science and Materials Chemistry
Contributors: Ali-Löytty, H., Louie, M. W., Singh, M. R., Li, L., Sanchez Casalongue, H. G., Ogasawara, H., Crumlin, E. J., Liu, Z., Bell, A. T., Nilsson, A., Friebel, D.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 2247-2253
Publication date: 4 Feb 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 120
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.964 SNIP 1.189
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)
Electronic versions: 
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84957588014

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Aqueous guanidinium-carbonate interactions by molecular dynamics and neutron scattering: Relevance to ion-protein interactions

Guanidinium carbonate was used in this study as a simple proxy for the biologically relevant arginine-carbonate interactions in water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of guanidinium carbonate were performed with nonpolarizible water using two implementations of the ion force fields. In the first, the ions had full charges, while in the second, the ions had reduced charges in order to effectively account for electronic polarization effects of water. The results from the simulations were then compared to data from previous neutron scattering experiments. It was found that there were significant discrepancies between the full charge force field MD simulations and the experimental results due to excessive ion pairing and clustering in the former. In contrast, reducing the ionic charges yields a more regular solution with a simulated structure, which fits well the experimental data.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Bijenička Cesta 54
Contributors: Vazdar, M., Jungwirth, P., Mason, P. E.
Number of pages: 5
Pages: 1844-1848
Publication date: 14 Feb 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 117
Issue number: 6
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 6.3 SJR 1.504 SNIP 1.195
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84873899176

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Arc-sprayed Fe-based coatings from coredwires for wear and corrosion protection in power engineering

High wear and corrosion of parts lead to an increase in operating costs at thermal power plants. The present paper shows a possible solution to this problem through the arc spraying of protective coatings. Cored wires of the base alloying system Fe-Cr-C were used as a feedstock. Rise of wear- and heat-resistance of the coatings was achieved by additional alloying with Al, B, Ti, and Y. The wear and heat resistance of the coatings were tested via a two-body wear test accompanied by microhardness measurement and the gravimetric method, respectively. A high-temperature corrosion test was performed at 550 °C under KCl salt deposition. The porosity and adhesion strengths of the coatings were also evaluated. The microstructure was investigated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) unit equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyzer, and the phase composition was assessed by X-ray diffractometry. The test results showed the positive influence of additional alloying with Y on the coating properties. A comparison with commercial boiler materials showed that the coatings have the same level of heat resistance as austenite steels and are an order of magnitude higher than that of pearlite and martensite-ferrite steels. The coatings can be applied to wear- and heat-resistant applications at 20-700 °C.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, B. N. Yeltsin Ural Federal University, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Contributors: Yury, K., Filippov, M., Makarov, A., Malygina, I., Soboleva, N., Fantozzi, D., Andrea, M., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P.
Publication date: 1 Feb 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Coatings
Volume: 8
Issue number: 2
Article number: 71
ISSN (Print): 2079-6412
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 2.3 SNIP 1.017
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Adhesion, Arc spraying, Coating, Cored wire, Waste-to-energy boilers, Wear and corrosion resistance
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85047907541

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Aryl end-capped quaterthiophenes applied as anode interfacial layers in inverted organic solar cells

Four aryl end-capped quaterthiophene derivatives were synthesized and their material properties were studied by computational, spectroscopic, electrochemical, and thermoanalytical methods. Compounds were applied as interfacial layers between the bulk heterojunction active layer and Ag anode in inverted organic solar cells. Results show that p-cyanophenyl end-capped quaterthiophene with hexyl side chains increases both the short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency notably compared to reference interlayer material, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum. The improved cell performance was attributed to the optimal positions of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of this material, relative to those of the photoactive electron donor poly(3-hexylthiophene) and Ag anode, and evenly distributed LUMO. In addition, the use of these materials as an anode interfacial layer increases the absorption of the solar cell, which could contribute to the formation of excitons and additional current production by the cell.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Supramolecular photochemistry, Frontier Photonics, University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry and Mathematics, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University
Contributors: Heiskanen, J. P., Manninen, V. M., Pankov, D., Omar, W. A. E., Kastinen, T., Hukka, T. I., Lemmetyinen, H. J., Hormi, O. E. O.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 196-206
Publication date: 1 Jan 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Thin Solid Films
Volume: 574
ISSN (Print): 0040-6090
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3.5 SJR 0.68 SNIP 0.923
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Materials Chemistry, Metals and Alloys, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Anode interfacial layer, Bulk heterojunction, Computational research, Inverted organic solar cell, Oligothiophene, Spectroscopy, Suzuki-Miyaura

Bibliographical note

EXT="Heiskanen, J. P."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84921286591

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Assessment of pitting corrosion in bare and passivated (wet scCO2-induced patination and chemical passivation) hot-dip galvanized steel samples with SVET, FTIR, and SEM (EDS)

In this study, the local electrochemical activity of untreated and passivated (natural or chemical passivation) zinc specimens was observed during immersion in a 0.1-M NaCl solution. The localized anodic activity during the exposure, measured with the scanning vibrating electrode technique, was linked to zinc dissolution by the pitting corrosion mechanism. It was correlated to specific corrosion products characterized by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) microscopy. FTIR molecule maps were produced from individual pitting corrosion sites (100–200 µm in width). With argon ion beam milling and latest energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) technology, element maps with a high spatial resolution (≪100 nm) were recorded from abrasion- and beam-sensitive corrosion products, showing a residual layer structure. This study demonstrates the capability of FTIR mapping, cross-section polishing, and state-of-the-art scanning electron microscopy imaging, and EDS element mapping to produce high-resolution elemental, molecular, and visual information about pitting corrosion mechanisms on a hot-dip galvanized steel sample.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Ceramic materials, Top Analytica Oy, Swerim AB, RISE, SSAB
Contributors: Saarimaa, V., Fuertes, N., Persson, D., Zavalis, T., Kaleva, A., Nikkanen, J., Levänen, E., Heydari, G.
Number of pages: 10
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Materials and Corrosion
ISSN (Print): 0947-5117
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Environmental Chemistry, Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: anodic dissolution, FTIR microscopy, passivation, pitting corrosion, scanning electron microscopy, zinc
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85084611702

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

A study of Cr3C2-based HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed coatings: Abrasion, dry particle erosion and cavitation erosion resistance

Material and spray process selection are the key factors in the tailoring of thermal sprayed coatings for demanding industrial applications. In this study, four commercial Cr3C2-based feedstock materials were sprayed with gas-fuelled high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) and modern high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) spray processes. Two materials with standard Cr3C2–25NiCr composition (porous and dense), a Cr3C2–50NiCrMoNb and Cr3C2–37WC–18NiCoCr materials were sprayed in addition to the reference WC-10Co4Cr material. The Cr3C2–50NiCrMoNb had a higher content of the Ni-based metal matrix compared to standard Cr3C2–25NiCr composition for added corrosion resistance, while the Cr3C2–37WC–18NiCoCr material contained additional tungsten carbide (WC) particles to improve the wear resistance. In abrasion and dry particle erosion, the Cr3C2–50NiCrMoNb coatings showed a higher degree of plastic deformation and increased material loss, whereas the Cr3C2–37WC–18NiCoCr coating had wear resistance between the standard Cr3C2–25NiCr and reference WC-10Co4Cr coatings. In cavitation erosion, the lower carbide content of Cr3C2–50NiCrMoNb coatings turned out to improve the resistance against fatigue wear due to higher fracture toughness. Overall, the HVAF sprayed coatings had higher elastic modulus, higher fracture toughness, equal or higher abrasion and erosion resistance, and higher cavitation erosion resistance compared to the HVOF sprayed counterparts.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Surface Engineering, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering
Contributors: Matikainen, V., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 11
Publication date: 15 Apr 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 446-447
Article number: 203188
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Abrasion, Cavitation erosion, Coating, Erosion, Hardmetal, HVAF
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85077986604

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

A Study of Cr3C2-Based HVOF- and HVAF-Sprayed Coatings: Microstructure and Carbide Retention

The research on high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF)-sprayed Cr3C2-based materials has mostly focused on conventional Cr3C2-25NiCr composition. In this paper, two alternative compositions (Cr3C2-50NiCrMoNb and Cr3C2-37WC-18NiCoCrFe) were sprayed with high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and HVAF spray processes to evaluate the material behavior during spraying and to provide characterization of the microstructures and mechanical properties of the coatings. For comparison, coatings from the Cr3C2-25NiCr composition were sprayed with both processes. Spray diagnostics were carried out to obtain average particle velocity and temperature for each material and process combinations. The measured average in-flight particle data were 1800 °C and 700 m/s for HVOF process, and 1450 °C and 900 m/s for HVAF process. Characterization of the coating microstructures was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the carbon content of the feedstock powders and sprayed coatings was measured with carbon analyzer. The results show that carbide rebounding or selective deposition of particles with higher metal matrix content is the dominating reason for carbide loss during HVAF spraying, while carbide dissolution is an additional source for the HVOF spraying. Higher particle velocities and controlled temperature measured for the HVAF process produced dense coatings with improved toughness and more homogenous coating structure.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization, Research group: Surface Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
Contributors: Matikainen, V., Bolelli, G., Koivuluoto, H., Honkanen, M., Vippola, M., Lusvarghi, L., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 18
Pages: 1-18
Publication date: Aug 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 26
Issue number: 6
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 3.3 SJR 0.688 SNIP 1.209
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: chromium carbide, diagnostics, HVAF, HVOF, image analysis
Electronic versions: 
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020726840

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Atomikerroskasvatusmenetelmällä kasvatetun titaanidioksidikalvon ominaisuudet valosähkökemiallisessa veden hajottamisessa

Photoelectrochemical water splitting is one of the potential ways of utilizing solar energy. A major issue for the method and for renewable energy production would be the development of an efficient and a cost-effective semiconductor photoanode. In this Master of Science Thesis properties of atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium dioxide film (TiO2), such as a chemical composition, a crystal structure and the ability to absorb sunlight, are studied in as-deposited conditions and after oxidative annealing. By understanding thoroughly the properties of atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide and the effects of post-annealing in air, titanium dioxide can be better utilized in semiconductor photoanodes used in photoelectrochemical water splitting.

Titanium dioxide films examined in this study were grown on n-type phosphorus-doped silicon (n-Si(100)(P)) and fused quartz used as substrates by atomic layer deposition at 200 °C using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and deionized water as precursors. The annealing of some of the samples at 500 °C in air was made in a tube furnace. The concentrations of the elements and chemical states of the atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The film thickness and refractive index were determined by ellipsometer and the absorption properties of the titanium dioxide film were measured by UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer. In addition, crystallographic results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were also utilized, as well as the results of the photoelectrochemical cell and solar simulator on titanium dioxide photoanode performance.

Based on the results, at 200 °C atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide is amorphous and absorbs visible light as ”black” TiO2. At the oxidative annealing at 500 °C titanium dioxide crystallizes into rutile and becomes ”white” TiO2 that absorbs less visible light. Both titanium dioxide films contain the lower Ti3+/2+ oxidation states of titanium that may indicate oxygen vacancies. Nitrogen is found only in as-deposited titanium dioxide. The annealed titanium dioxide is stable in electrolyte, achieving 0.20 % ABPE for water splitting reaction.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: G2 Master's thesis, polytechnic Master's thesis
Organisations: Photonics, Research group: Surface Science
Contributors: Saari, J.
Number of pages: 74
Publication date: 4 Oct 2017

Publication information

Original language: Finnish
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Keywords: Photoelectrochemical water splitting, Titanium dioxide, ALD, Atomic layer deposition, XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Ellipsometry, UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometry

Research output: Book/ReportMaster's ThesisScientific

Avoiding the initial adhesive friction peak in fretting

An initial friction peak typically occurs in a dry self-mated quenched and tempered steel fretting contact in gross sliding conditions. The peak is related to adhesive friction and wear, which causes non-Coulomb friction. An early surface degradation including cracks may occur. To avoid such a peak, different media were studied using a flat-on-flat fretting test device with a large annular contact. All the media decreased the initial friction peak in comparison to the dry reference case, and in one series the peak was completely removed. The peak could often be delayed by lubrication. The steady-state coefficient of friction values mostly remained at similar levels to those of the dry contact, but decreased when oil was applied. Nevertheless, some surface damage occurred in every test, with varying amounts of wear.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Wärtsilä, University of Oulu
Contributors: Juoksukangas, J., Hintikka, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T.
Number of pages: 12
Publication date: 15 Nov 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 460-461
Article number: 203353
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Fretting, Fretting wear, Friction, Lubrication, Third body layer
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85090920140

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Behavior of 4-hydroxynonenal in phospholipid membranes

Under conditions of oxidative stress, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is commonly present in vivo. This highly reactive and cytotoxic compound is generated by oxidation of lipids in membranes and can be easily transferred from a membrane to both cytosol and the extracellular space. Employing time-dependent fluorescence shift (TDFS) method and molecular dynamics simulations, we found that 4-HNE is stabilized in the carbonyl region of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer. 4-HNE is thus able to react with cell membrane proteins and lipids. Stabilization in the membrane is, however, moderate and a transfer of 4-HNE to either extra- or intracellular space occurs on a microsecond time scale. These molecular-level details of 4-HNE behavior in the lipid membrane rationalize the experimentally observed reactivity of 4-HNE with proteins inside and outside the cell. Furthermore, these results support the view that 4-HNE may play an active role in cell signaling pathways.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Center for Biomolecules and Complex Molecular Systems, Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rudjer Bošković Institute, J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, V.v.i.
Contributors: Vazdar, M., Jurkiewicz, P., Hof, M., Jungwirth, P., Cwiklik, L.
Number of pages: 5
Pages: 6411-6415
Publication date: 7 Jun 2012
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 116
Issue number: 22
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2012): CiteScore 6.7 SJR 1.943 SNIP 1.243
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84861861948

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Behaviour of leaded tin bronze in simulated seawater in the absence and presence of tribological contact with alumina counterbody: Corrosion, wear and tribocorrosion

Corrosion, wear and tribocorrosion behaviours of leaded tin bronze were examined in simulated seawater using alumina counterbody for tribological contact. Active dissolution of alloy and corrosion product development on surfaces were the dominant corrosion mechanisms. Tribological contact with counterbody removed majority of the products, thus contributing to active dissolution of freshly exposed surface. This wear-induced corrosion mechanism contributed to 45% and 60% of total material losses at the two highest potentials, 50 mV and 250 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Pure wear of alloy occurred in the form of abrasive wear. At anodic potentials under tribological contact, corrosion raised the friction coefficient as compared to pure wear and increased wear of the alloy. These results are presented and discussed in this paper.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Photonics, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., Isotahdon, E., Metsäjoki, J., Salminen, T., Ronkainen, H., Carpén, L.
Number of pages: 15
Pages: 257-271
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 22 Aug 2018

Publication information

Journal: Tribology International
Volume: 129
ISSN (Print): 0301-679X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.536 SNIP 2.373
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Contact: sliding, Surface: chemical analysis, Synergism: tribochemistry, Wear: corrosive

Bibliographical note

EXT="Metsäjoki, J."
EXT="Isotahdon, E."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85052665246

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Block copolymer lithography: Feature size control and extension by an over-etch technique

Block copolymer lithography based on block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly can be used to develop soft mask nanoscale templates for subsequent pattern transfer to generate substrate features. Self-assembly of lamellar polystyrene-b-polymethylmethacrylate BCP of varying molecular weights to generate silicon nanoscale features is reported here. It has also been demonstrated that the feature size can be controlled by a plasma over-etch process and discussed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Frontier Photonics, Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group, University College Cork, Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Tyndall National Institute at National University of Ireland, Cork, Collinstown Industrial Estate
Contributors: Rasappa, S., Borah, D., Senthamaraikannan, R., Faulkner, C. C., Shaw, M. T., Gleeson, P., Holmes, J. D., Morris, M. A.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 318-323
Publication date: 1 Nov 2012
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Thin Solid Films
Volume: 522
ISSN (Print): 0040-6090
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2012): CiteScore 3.3 SJR 0.897 SNIP 1.153
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Materials Chemistry, Metals and Alloys, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Block copolymer, Lithography, Over-etching, Plasma etching, Polystyrene-b-polymethylmethacrylate, Self-assembly, Silicon nanowires
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84868593394

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Both zundel and eigen isomers contribute to the IR spectrum of the gas-phase H9O4 + cluster

The "Eigen cation", H3O+(H 2O)3, is the most prevalent protonated water structure in the liquid phase and the most stable gas-phase isomer of the H +(H2O)4 cluster. Nevertheless, its 50 K argon predissociation vibrational spectrum contains unexplainable low frequency peak(s). We have simulated the IR spectra of 10 gas-phase H+(H 2O)4 isomers, that include zero to three argon ligands, using dipole autocorrelation functions from ab initio molecular dynamics with the CP2K software. We have also tested the effect of elevated temperature and dispersion correction. The Eigen isomers describe well the high frequency portion of the spectrum but do not agree with experiment below 2000 cm -1. Most notably, they completely lack the "proton transfer bands" observed at 1050 and 1750 cm-1, which characterize Zundel-type (H5O2+) isomers. In contrast, linear isomers with a Zundel core, although not the lowest in energy, show very good agreement with experiment, particularly at low frequencies. Peak assignments made with partial velocity autocorrelation functions verify that the 1750 cm-1 band does not originate with the Eigen isomer but is rather due to coupled proton transfer/water bend in the Zundel isomer.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Tallinn Technical University, Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Contributors: Kulig, W., Agmon, N.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 278-286
Publication date: 9 Jan 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 118
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.449 SNIP 1.13
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84892594412

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Calculated electronic density of states and structural properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon

A series of tetrahedral amorphous carbon structures with different microscopic mass densities was generated by calculations based on the density functional theory with a local density approximation and using a method of melting-cooling cycles. A detailed investigation of the properties of the simulated structures has been carried out. Particularly, the short-range order, nearest neighbour distances, fractions of sp1, sp2 and sp3 sites, average C-C-C bond angles and electronic density of states have been analyzed. The simulated structures and calculated properties are in good agreement with those obtained by others and with the experimental data. An unexpected observation is the presence of planar structures, which are typical for graphite, in the sample with low density. In addition, the nearest neighbour distance in the sample with mass density 3.54 g/cm3 is different from those reported previously. Possibilities to compare the density of states obtained from the simulations with the experimental results from scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and X-ray near edge spectrum are discussed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: University of Oulu, Department of Physical Sciences
Contributors: Koivusaari, K. J., Rantala, T. T., Leppävuori, S.
Number of pages: 5
Pages: 736-740
Publication date: Apr 2000
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Diamond and Related Materials
Volume: 9
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 0925-9635
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2000): SJR 1.393 SNIP 0.943
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 0033748066

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Carbon nanotubes-filled thermoplastic polyurethane-urea and carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber blend nanocomposites

This article reports the preparation and characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-filled thermoplastic polyurethane-urea (TPUU) and carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) blend nanocomposites. The dispersion of the MWCNTs was carried out using a laboratory two roll mill. Three different loadings, that is, 1, 3, and 5 wt % of the MWCNTs were used. The electron microscopy image analysis proves that the MWCNTs are evenly dispersed along the shear flow direction. Through incorporation of the nanotubes in the blend, the tensile modulus was increased from 9.90 ± 0.5 to 45.30 ± 0.3 MPa, and the tensile strength at break was increased from 25.4 ± 2.5 to 33.0 ± 1.5 MPa. The wide angle X-ray scattering result showed that the TPUU:XNBR blends were arranged in layered structures. These structures are formed through chemical reactions of -NH group from urethane and urea with the carboxylic group on XNBR. Furthermore, even at a very low loading, the high degree of nanotubes dispersion results in a significant increase in the electrical percolation threshold. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40341.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Lahore, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden E.V., Institut für Polymerwerkstoffe, Vodafone Department of Mobile Communications Systems
Contributors: Mahmood, N., Khan, A. U., Stöckelhuber, K. W., Das, A., Jehnichen, D., Heinrich, G.
Publication date: 5 Jun 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume: 131
Issue number: 11
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 3.2 SJR 0.664 SNIP 0.98
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Materials Chemistry, Polymers and Plastics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Chemistry(all)
Keywords: blends, elastomers, graphene and fullerenes, nanotubes, polyurethanes, rubber
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84897664169

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Catalytic Activity of AuCu Clusters on MgO(100): Effect of Alloy Composition for CO Oxidation

Density functional simulations have been performed for Au7Cu23 and Au23Cu7 clusters on MgO(100) supports to probe their catalytic activity for CO oxidation. The adsorption of reactants, O2 and CO, and potential O2 dissociation have been investigated in detail by tuning the location of vacancies (F-center, V-center) in MgO(100). The total charge on Au7Cu23 and Au23Cu7 is negative on all supports, regardless of the presence of vacancies, but the effect is significantly amplified on the F-center. Au7Cu23/MgO(100) and Au23Cu7/MgO(100) with an F-center are the only systems to bind O2 more strongly than CO. In each case, O2 can be effectively activated upon adsorption and dissociated to 2 × O atoms. The different reaction paths based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms for CO oxidation have been explored on the Au7Cu23 and Au23Cu7 clusters on F-centers, and the results are compared with the previous findings for Au15Cu15. Overall, the reaction barriers are small, but the changes in the Au:Cu ratio tune the reactant adsorption energies and sites considerably, showing also varying selectivity for CO and O2. The microkinetic model built on the basis of the above results shows a pronounced CO2 production rate at low temperature for the clusters on F-centers.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Research group: Materials and Molecular Modeling, COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Aalto University, Norwegian Univ. of Sci. and Technol.
Contributors: Ma, L., Laasonen, K., Akola, J.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 10876-10886
Publication date: 25 May 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 121
Issue number: 20
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 2.135 SNIP 1.133
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Energy(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020757142

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Cation-specific effects on enzymatic catalysis driven by interactions at the tunnel mouth

Cationic specificity which follows the Hofmeister series has been established for the catalytic efficiency of haloalkane dehalogenase LinB by a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and enzyme kinetic experiments. Simulations provided a detailed molecular picture of cation interactions with negatively charged residues on the protein surface, particularly at the tunnel mouth leading to the enzyme active site. On the basis of the binding affinities, cations were ordered as Na+ > K+ > Rb+ > Cs+. In agreement with this result, a steady-state kinetic analysis disclosed that the smaller alkali cations influence formation and productivity of enzyme-substrate complexes more efficiently than the larger ones. A subsequent systematic investigation of two LinB mutants with engineered charge in the cation-binding site revealed that the observed cation affinities are enhanced by increasing the number of negatively charged residues at the tunnel mouth, and vice versa, reduced by decreasing this number. However, the cation-specific effects are overwhelmed by strong electrostatic interactions in the former case. Interestingly, the substrate inhibition of the mutant LinB L177D in the presence of chloride salts was 7 times lower than that of LinB wild type in glycine buffer. Our work provides new insight into the mechanisms of specific cation effects on enzyme activity and suggests a potential strategy for suppression of substrate inhibition by the combination of protein and medium engineering.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne's University Hospital Brno, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Department of Experimental Biology, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University
Contributors: Štěpánková, V., Paterová, J., Damborský, J., Jungwirth, P., Chaloupková, R., Heyda, J.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 6394-6402
Publication date: 30 May 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 117
Issue number: 21
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 6.3 SJR 1.504 SNIP 1.195
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84878363659

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Cavitation wear characteristics of Al2O3-ZrO2-ceramic coatings deposited by APS and HVOF -processes

Thermally sprayed ceramic coatings are used in environments requiring good wear- and corrosion resistance among others. However, a typical issue with ceramic coatings is their low impact resistance and tendency to fail catastrophically by cracking. In bulk ceramics, the Al2O3-ZrO2–composition has been of interest for long since already small additions of ZrO2 into Al2O3 have shown improvements in fracture toughness compared to pure Al2O3. Efforts are being made to induce this increased resistance to fracturing in thermally sprayed coatings as well, resulting in higher wear resistance due to a more predictable behavior and damage-tolerance. In this work, Al2O3-ZrO2-coatings have been deposited by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and high-velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF) processes. The wear characteristics of the coatings were evaluated with cavitation erosion, delving into the mechanics of the erosion and the resulting microstructural changes in the coatings. Evidence of phase transformation of t-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 was found during the erosion. The HVOF-sprayed coating exhibited greater wear resistance against the cavitating bubbles due to its finer microstructure.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Contributors: Kiilakoski, J., Lukac, F., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 928-933
Publication date: 9 Jun 2017

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Internationl Thermal Spray Conference ITSC 2017, Conference Proceedings : June 7-9, 2017, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Volume: 336
Place of publication: Düsseldorf
Publisher: DVS Media GmbH
ISBN (Electronic): 978-3-96144-000-9

Publication series

Name: DVS-Berichte / DVS - Deutscher Verband für Schweißen und Verwandte Verfahren e.V.
Publisher: DVS Media GmbH
ISSN (Electronic): 0418-9639
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Thermal spray coating, HVOF spraying, Cavitation damage, alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia, Erosion testing, PLASMA SPRAY

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

Characteristics of carbide-free medium-carbon bainitic steels in high-stress abrasive wear conditions

This study encompasses a comprehensive account of the abrasive wear properties of carbide-free, ultrahigh-strength bainitic steels processed through ausforming at three different temperatures well below the recrystallization stop temperature followed by bainitic transformation at temperatures close to the Ms temperature. Five medium-carbon, high-silicon compositions were designed for the study by suitably varying the alloying levels of carbon, vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, and aluminum. While ausforming at lower temperatures enabled a large number of nucleation sites leading to significant refinement of bainitic laths, the decomposition of austenite at relatively low transformation temperatures was accelerated due to the presence of a high dislocation density, thus enabling completion of bainitic transformation in a reasonable length of time. The steels were characterized in respect of microstructural features and mechanical properties, besides evaluation of wear resistance through a high-stress abrasive wear testing method with natural granite abrasives. The microstructures comprised different fractions of bainitic ferrite and/or granular bainite (56–68%), martensite (0–25%), besides a significant fraction of retained austenite (20–34%) manifesting as pools and also interlath films, depending on the ausforming conditions and subsequent cooling paths. A tensile strength of 1900 MPa level was achieved with hardness exceeding 500 HV for the medium-temperature ausformed steel containing a high carbon content that also showed lowest mass loss in the wear test. The hardness-to-mass loss ratio appeared highly promising with some of the carbide-free bainitic steels on par with or better than the reference martensitic steel. The high work-hardening capability as a consequence of the strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation was considered as the main factor for the superior abrasive wear resistance of the carbide-free bainitic steels.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Materials Characterization, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu
Contributors: Haiko, O., Kaikkonen, P., Somani, M., Valtonen, K., Kömi, J.
Number of pages: 12
Publication date: 15 Sep 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 456-457
Article number: 203386
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Abrasion, Bainite, Microstructure, Steel, Wear testing
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85087215937

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Characteristics of nFOG, an aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique

An atmospheric pressure aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique called the nFOG is characterized and applied in polymer film coatings. In the nFOG, a fog of droplets is formed by two air-assist atomizers oriented toward each other inside a deposition chamber. The droplets settle gravitationally and deposit on a substrate, forming a wet film. In this study, the continuous deposition mode of the nFOG is explored. We determined the size distribution of water droplets inside the chamber in a wide side range of 0.1–100 µm and on the substrate using aerosol measurement instruments and optical microscopy, respectively. The droplet size distribution was found to be bimodal with droplets of approximately 30–50 µm contributing the most to the mass of the formed wet film. The complementary measurement methods allow us to estimate the role of different droplet deposition mechanisms. The obtained results suggest that the deposition velocity of the droplets is lower than the calculated terminal settling velocity, likely due to the flow fields inside the chamber. Furthermore, the mass flux of the droplets onto the substrate is determined to be in the order of 1 g/m3s, corresponding to a wet film growth rate of 1 µm/s. Finally, the nFOG technique is demonstrated by preparing polymer films with thicknesses in the range of approximately 0.1–20 µm.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Materials Science, RISE Bioscience and Materials, Research Institutes of Sweden, Lund University
Contributors: Harra, J., Tuominen, M., Juuti, P., Rissler, J., Koivuluoto, H., Haapanen, J., Niemelä-Anttonen, H., Stenroos, C., Teisala, H., Lahti, J., Kuusipalo, J., Vuoristo, P., Mäkelä, J. M.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 623-632
Publication date: May 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 1 Feb 2018

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Coatings Technology Research
Volume: 15
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 1547-0091
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 2.4 SNIP 0.716
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Colloid and Surface Chemistry
Keywords: Aerosol measurement, Droplet size distribution, nFOG, Polymer film, Wet coating technique

Bibliographical note

EXT="Tuominen, Mikko"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85045145179

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Characterization of cracks formed in large flat-on-flat fretting contact

Fretting fatigue may lead to severe damage in machines. Adhesive material transfer spots in millimeter scale have previously been observed on fretted surfaces, which have been related to cracking. In this study, fretting-induced cracks formed in a large annular flat-on-flat contact are characterized. Optical and scanning electron microscopy of the fretting scar cross-section samples of self-mated quenched and tempered steel specimens revealed severe cracking and deformed microstructure. Two major cracks typically formed around an adhesion spot, which propagated at an oblique angle, regardless of the test parameters used. Millimeter-scale cracks were observed already within a few thousand loading cycles.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Materials Characterization, Wärtsilä, University of Oulu, Tampere University
Contributors: Juoksukangas, J., Nurmi, V., Hintikka, J., Vippola, M., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 361-370
Publication date: Jul 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: International Journal of Fatigue
Volume: 124
ISSN (Print): 0142-1123
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 7.6 SJR 1.476 SNIP 2.311
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Materials Science(all), Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Crack formation, Cracks, Damage, Fretting fatigue, Microscopy
Electronic versions: 

Bibliographical note

INT=msee,"Nurmi, Verner"
EXT="Hintikka, Jouko"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85062887941

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Characterization of High-Velocity Single Particle Impacts on Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

High-velocity impact wear can have a significant effect on the lifetime of thermally sprayed coatings in multiple applications, e.g., in the process and paper industries. Plasma-sprayed oxide coatings, such as Cr2O3- and TiO2-based coatings, are often used in these industries in wear and corrosion applications. An experimental impact study was performed on thermally sprayed ceramic coatings using the High-Velocity Particle Impactor (HVPI) at oblique angles to investigate the damage, failure, and deformation of the coated structures. The impact site was characterized by profilometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the connection between the microstructural details and impact behavior was studied in order to reveal the damage and failure characteristics at a more comprehensive level. Differences in the fracture behavior were found between the thermally sprayed Cr2O3 and TiO2 coatings, and a concept of critical impact energy is presented here. The superior cohesion of the TiO2 coating inhibited interlamellar cracking while the Cr2O3 coating suffered greater damage at high impact energies. The HVPI experiment has proven to be able to produce valuable information about the deformation behavior of coatings under high strain rates and could be utilized further in the development of wear-resistant coatings.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization
Contributors: Kiilakoski, J., Lindroos, M., Apostol, M., Koivuluoto, H., Kuokkala, V., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 1127-1137
Publication date: 24 Jun 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 25
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 3.1 SJR 0.659 SNIP 0.932
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: electron microscopy, fracture, impact wear, thermal spray coatings, wear testing
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84976320961

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Characterization Of High-Velocity Single Particle Impacts On Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

High-velocity impact wear may have a significant effect on the lifetime of thermally sprayed coatings in multiple applications, e.g. in process- and aero industries. An experimental impact study was performed on thermally sprayed coatings with a high velocity particle impactor (HVPI) in oblique angles to investigate the damage, failure and deformation of the coating. The impact site was characterized with a profilometer, optical microscopy and SEM. Furthermore, the connection between the microstructural details and impact behaviour were studied to reveal the damage and failure characteristics in a more comprehensive level. Additionally, traditional dry-erosion behaviour with small particles and different angles was compared with the high-velocity single particle impact phenomena. Differences in wear volume and deformation of the impact site and in absorbance of kinetic energy were also studied, focusing on the effect of material properties as well as the impact characteristics.

General information

Publication status: Unpublished
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Research group: Materials Characterization
Contributors: Kiilakoski, J., Lindroos, M., Matikainen, V., Apostol, N., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P.
Publication date: 13 May 2015

Host publication information

Title of host publication: International Thermal Spray Conference & Exposition 2015
ISBN (Print): 978-1-62708-093-4
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Bibliographical note

Conference presentation, unpublished in proceedings.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Characterization of Powder-Precursor HVOF-Sprayed Al2O3-YSZ/ZrO2 Coatings

Thermal spraying using liquid feedstock can produce coatings with very fine microstructures either by utilizing submicron particles in the form of a suspension or through in situ synthesis leading, for example, to improved tribological properties. The focus of this work was to obtain a bimodal microstructure by using simultaneous hybrid powder-precursor HVOF spraying, where nanoscale features from liquid feedstock could be combined with the robustness and efficiency of spraying with powder feedstock. The nanostructure was achieved from YSZ and ZrO2 solution-precursors, and a conventional Al2O3 spray powder was responsible for the structural features in the micron scale. The microstructures of the coatings revealed some clusters of unmelted nanosized YSZ/ZrO2 embedded in a lamellar matrix of Al2O3. The phase compositions consisted of γ- and α-Al2O3 and cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2. Additionally, some alloying of the constituents was found. The mechanical strength of the coatings was not optimal due to the excessive amount of the nanostructured YSZ/ZrO2 addition. An amount of 10 vol.% or 7 wt.% 8YSZ was estimated to result in a more desired mixing of constituents that would lead to an optimized coating architecture.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, ELCOGEN OY, Univ of Oulu
Contributors: Kiilakoski, J., Puranen, J., Heinonen, E., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P.
Pages: 98-107
Publication date: Jan 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 2018

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 28
Issue number: 1-2
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 4.7 SJR 0.71 SNIP 1.281
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: AlO-ZrO, ceramic matrix composite, coating, HVOF, hybrid, solution-precursor spraying
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85058214735

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Characterizing the micro-impact fatigue behavior of APS and HVOF-sprayed ceramic coatings

The fatigue life of thermally sprayed Al2O3- and Cr2O3-based coatings has been studied under low-energy (0.7–5 mJ) impact conditions. A threshold impact energy and amount of repetitions the coatings can endure with said energy before catastrophic failure was obtained. The catastrophic failure was determined to occur when the fracture mode of the coating switched from brittle cone cracking to quasi-plastic radial cracking. The results are examined relative to the microstructural features along with other properties of the coatings - hardness and cavitation resistance. The experiment provided a new approach for a straightforward comparison of the micro-scale impact fatigue life of thermally sprayed coatings unachievable with previous methods.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté - ICB - UTBM - LERMPS
Contributors: Kiilakoski, J., Langlade, C., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P.
Pages: 245-254
Publication date: 15 Aug 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 371
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 5.8 SJR 0.938 SNIP 1.614
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Ceramic coating, Characterization, Fracture, Impact test, Surface fatigue, Thermal spray
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85055977332

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

CLC a Colored Liquid Crystal: Prototype Description and Design Opportunities

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: University of Virginia
Contributors: Rubio Hernandez, R.
Publication date: 2009

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference: Glass Performace Days
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Architecture , Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Glass, Liquid crystal, Polarization, Light, Colour, Smart materials

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Cold gas spraying of a high-entropy CrFeNiMn equiatomic alloy

Cold gas spraying was used to make a coating from an equiatomic CrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy. This four-component alloy was chosen because it is Co-free, thus allowing application in nuclear industries as a possible replacement of currently used stainless steel coatings. The feedstock material was gas atomized powder with a particle size distribution from 20 to 45 μm. A number of parameters were tested, such as the powder feed rate and gas feed pressure, in order to obtain as dense a coating as possible with nitrogen as the process gas. Spraying was performed using a gas preheating temperature of 1000 °C, gas feed pressure ranging from 50 to 60 bar, and two powder feeding rates. The coating thicknesses ranging from 230 to 490 m and porosities ranging from 3% to 10% were obtained depending on the powder feed rate and gas feed pressure. The hardness of the cross-section of the coating was usually lower than that of the surface. The highest coating hardness obtained was above 300 HV0.3 for both the surface and the cross-section. The as-atomized powder consisted of a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase with a minute amount of body-centered cubic (BCC) phase, which was no longer detectable in the coatings. The microstructure of the coating was highly stressed due to the high degree of deformation occurring in cold gas spraying. The deformation leads to strain hardening and induces a pronounced texture in the coating. The 111 planes tend to align along the coating surface, with deformation and texturing concentrating mainly on particle boundaries. A high-entropy alloy (HEA) coating was successfully sprayed for the first time using nitrogen as a process gas. The coating has the potential to replace stainless steel coatings in nuclear industry applications.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Surface Engineering, Aalto University
Contributors: Lehtonen, J., Koivuluoto, H., Ge, Y., Juselius, A., Hannula, S. P.
Number of pages: 12
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Coatings
Volume: 10
Issue number: 1
Article number: 53
ISSN (Print): 2079-6412
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Cold gas spraying, High-entropy alloy, Microstructure
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85079063520

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Cold-Sprayed Al6061 coatings: Online spray monitoring and influence of process parameters on coating properties

Process optimization and quality control are important issues in cold spraying and coating development. Because the cold spray processing is based on high kinetic energy by high particle velocities, online spray monitoring of particle inflight properties can be used as an assisting process tool. Particle velocities, their positions in the spray jet, and particle size measurements give valuable information about spraying conditions. This, in turn, improves reproducibility and reliability of coating production. This study focuses on cold spraying of Al6061 material and the connections between particle inflight properties and coating characteristics such as structures and mechanical properties. Furthermore, novel 2D velocity scan maps done with theHWCS2 online spray monitoring system are presented as an advantageous powder and spray condition controlling tool. Cold spray processing conditions were similar using different process parameters, confirmed with the online spray monitoring prior to coating production. Higher particle velocities led to higher particle deformation and thus, higher coating quality, denser structures, and improved adhesions. Also, deposition efficiency increased significantly by using higher particle velocities.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Surface Engineering, Oseir Ltd., Sapienza University
Contributors: Koivuluoto, H., Larjo, J., Marini, D., Pulci, G., Marra, F.
Number of pages: 16
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Coatings
Volume: 10
Issue number: 4
Article number: 348
ISSN (Print): 2079-6412
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Al6061, Aluminum, Coatings, Cold spray, Diagnostics, Online monitoring, Process parameters
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85083845948

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Comparison of laboratory rolling-sliding wear tests with in-service wear of nodular cast iron rollers against wire ropes

The present work describes the wear behaviour of nodular cast iron in rolling-sliding contact with steel wire ropes and steel wires in laboratory and in-service conditions. In each of the studied examples, the wear had proceeded through a surface fatigue process, in which inter-nodular crack propagation and simultaneous deformation in a thin sub-surface zone had resulted in the formation of ferrous scales consisting of material from the metal matrix of the cast iron. The scale layers of the wear surface were oriented towards the direction of the sliding component of the motion, and the spalling of the scales was identified as the dominating mechanism for material removal from the wear surface. The initiation behaviour of the inter-nodular cracks was analysed by crack measurements and statistical analysis of the depths and initiation angles of the cracks in relation to the wear surface. The initiation depths of the cracks increased with increasing contact pressure. Roller samples from in-service and from the component wear tests showed closely similar distributions of the crack depths and crack initiation angles. The sample from the twin-disc test showed aspects of cracking behaviour that were typical of both the rolling and the sliding direction of the roller samples.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Materials Characterization, Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Oksanen, V., Valtonen, K., Andersson, P., Vaajoki, A., Laukkanen, A., Holmberg, K., Kuokkala, V. T.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 73-81
Publication date: 15 Oct 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 340-341
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 4.2 SJR 1.512 SNIP 2.027
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Mechanics of Materials
Keywords: Contact mechanics, Nodular cast iron, Rolling contact fatigue, Rolling-sliding, Wear testing, Wire rope
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84939528862

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Comparison of various high-stress wear conditions and wear performance of martensitic steels

The demanding environments typically encountered by the wear resistant steels create challenges for the materials selection, because the hardness grades of the steels alone do not reveal the true nature of their wear behavior. In this study, five commercial wear resistant steels were tested using three application oriented test methods with five different test variables for abrasion, impact-abrasion, and slurry erosion. All the used test methods produced high-stress conditions that crushed the used mineral abrasive, plastically deformed the sample surfaces, and led to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. When the results produced by the chosen methods were compared, the normalization of the wear losses by the wear area and test time revealed well the differences between the methods. The test methods ranked the steels similarly, but there were clear differences in the wear rates and wear mechanisms between the tests. In addition, the abrasive methods produced surface adiabatic shear bands, while subsurface shear bands were initiated by the more impacting methods. In the studied conditions, the work hardening ability of the steel had a clear influence on its wear resistance, which largely explains the marked differences in the wear rates of the studied commercial 500HB grade steels.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Materials Characterization, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Robit Ltd, Univ of Oulu
Contributors: Valtonen, K., Ojala, N., Haiko, O., Kuokkala, V.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 3-13
Publication date: 30 Apr 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 426-427
Issue number: Part A
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 5.8 SJR 1.335 SNIP 2.458
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Abrasion, Impact wear, Steel, Wear testing, ABRASIVE WEAR, BEHAVIOR, FIELD, RESISTANT STEELS, COMPRESSION, MICROSTRUCTURE
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85058455176

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Composition dependent growth dynamics in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells

We have investigated the role of the nitrogen content, the growth parameters, and the annealing processes involved in molecular beam epitaxy of GaInNAs solar cells lattice-matched to GaAs. The nitrogen composition was varied between 1% and 5%. The influence of the growth temperature was assessed by performing photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, quantum efficiency and light-biased current-voltage measurements. The growth temperature ensuring the best cell parameters was found to be 440 C. At this temperature we were able to incorporate up to 4% of nitrogen and achieve a good material quality. Further increase of the N composition to 5% led to phase separation. For the lattice matched samples grown within the optimal temperature range, we have identified a clear (1×3) surface reconstruction. Using the optimized growth we have demonstrated a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell structure containing 4% nitrogen, that exhibited a short-circuit current density as high as 33.8 mA/cm2 in respect to effective area illuminated. These measurements have been performed under real sun AM1.5 (~1000 W/m2) illumination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Optoelectronics Research Centre, Frontier Photonics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turun Yliopisto/Turun Biomateriaalikeskus
Contributors: Aho, A., Polojärvi, V., Korpijärvi, V. M., Salmi, J., Tukiainen, A., Laukkanen, P., Guina, M.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 150-158
Publication date: May 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume: 124
ISSN (Print): 0927-0248
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 10.1 SJR 2.19 SNIP 2.368
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Concentrated photovoltaics, Dilute nitrides, GaInNAs, Multi-junction solar cells, Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=orc,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-04-29<br/>Publisher name: Elsevier

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 58

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Compounding and characterization of recycled multilayer plastic films

Mechanical recycling of multilayer plastic films from food packages was investigated. The multilayer films were manually separated from municipal solid waste, washed, grinded, and finally compounded at 0–100 wt% concentrations with virgin low-density polyethylene (PE-LD). Polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA) compatibilizer was used in two of the compounds to replace 2 and 5 wt% of the PE-LD to study its effect as well. PE-g-MA is expected to improve the mechanical properties of the compounds by promoting the adhesion between incompatible polymer phases. The composition of the compounds was characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and their properties were studied with tensile testing and rotational rheometer measurements. All tested compounds had relatively good mechanical properties and processability. This indicates that recycled multilayer films could replace at least part of the virgin PE-LD in applications where high-thermal stability or good visual appearance is not required. The PE-g-MA compatibilizer did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the compounds.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Arcada, Fortum Waste Solutions Oy
Contributors: Jönkkäri, I., Poliakova, V., Mylläri, V., Anderson, R., Andersson, M., Vuorinen, J.
Number of pages: 8
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Article number: e49101
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Polymers and Plastics, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: mechanical properties, recycling, rheology, thermal properties, thermoplastics
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85079375444

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Configurational Disorder of Water Hydrogen-Bond Network at the Protein Dynamical Transition

We introduce a novel strategy to quantify the disorder of extended water-water hydrogen-bond (HB) networks sampled in particle-based computer simulations. The method relies on the conformational clustering of the HB connectivity states. We successfully applied it to unveil the fine relationship among the protein dynamical transition in hydrated powder, which marks the activation of protein flexibility at Td ≈ 240 K, and the sudden increase in the configurational disorder of the water HB network enveloping the proteins. Our finding links, in the spirit of the Adam-Gibbs relationship, the diffusivity of protein atoms, as quantified by the hydrogen mean-square displacements, and the thermodynamic solvent configurational entropy.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Bauhaus-Universitt Weimar, Université Paris Diderot, Universite di Perugia
Contributors: Rahaman, O., Kalimeri, M., Katava, M., Paciaroni, A., Sterpone, F.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 6792-6798
Publication date: 20 Jul 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 121
Issue number: 28
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 6 SJR 1.331 SNIP 0.993
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85025646989

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Construction of an Interconnected Nanostructured Carbon Black Network: Development of Highly Stretchable and Robust Elastomeric Conductors

In the present work, a strong filler-filler network of conductive carbon black was strategically established in an elastomer matrix, which leads to a unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties. The novelty of our composites was the development of a strong percolated morphology of nanostructured conducting carbon black particles by the incorporation of relatively large nonreinforcing spherical silica particles, inside the soft elastomer matrix. This technique allowed us to fabricate solution styrene butadiene rubber (S-SBR) composites with outstanding electrical conductivity of 40 S/m, tensile strength ∼10 MPa, and extensibility up to 200%. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity was strain-independent up to 50% elongation strain. The electrical conductivity was found to be unaltered after 2000 loading-unloading cycles. This is the first ever report of a robust elastomeric system with such high electrical conductivity where all the basic ingredients used were selected from well-known commercially available raw materials of rubber industry. This work directly manifests an industrially viable method for preparing high-performance elastic conductors that can be utilized in robust and flexible applications.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden E.V., Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, Institut für Polymerwerkstoffe E.V., Elkem AS, Silicon Materials
Contributors: Bhagavatheswaran, E. S., Parsekar, M., Das, A., Le, H. H., Wiessner, S., Stöckelhuber, K. W., Schmaucks, G., Heinrich, G.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 21723-21731
Publication date: 17 Sep 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 119
Issue number: 37
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.886 SNIP 1.246
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84941928016

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Convenient extraction method for quantification of thin zinc patina layers

Synthetic zinc patina was grown on galvanized steel sheets in supercritical carbon dioxide atmosphere. Different patina compounds were dissolved and quantified using a stepwise immersion and dissolution procedure. The distinct patina components, namely anhydrous zinc carbonate (a dense layer adjacent to metallic zinc) and zinc hydroxy carbonate (nanowires on the surface), were dissolved in glycine solutions, followed by quantification of Zn2+ in the solutes by X-ray fluorescence. The zinc hydroxy carbonate nanowires were readily glycine soluble, and the anhydrous zinc carbonate showed scarce glycine solubility, which enabled their selective quantification. The amount of the remaining (anhydrous) zinc carbonate after glycine extraction was determined from the glycine-soluble zinc oxide after calcination (heat treatment for 10 minutes at 350°C). The results were verified by scanning electron microscopy imaging and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science
Contributors: Saarimaa, V., Kaleva, A., Paunikallio, T., Nikkanen, J., Heinonen, S., Levänen, E., Väisänen, P., Markkula, A.
Pages: 564-570
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 1 Jan 2018

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Interface Analysis
Volume: 50
Issue number: 5
ISSN (Print): 0142-2421
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 2.4 SJR 0.451 SNIP 0.648
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Galvanized steel, Glycine, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Zinc carbonate, Zinc nanowires, Zinc oxide
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85044219012

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Corrosion properties of thermally sprayed bond coatings under plasma sprayed chromia coating in sulfuric acid solutions

Plasma sprayed chromia coatings are known to have excellent corrosion and wear properties in highly acidic conditions at ambient and elevated temperatures. In applications requiring extremely good corrosion resistance, the whole components are usually made of a corrosion resistant alloy. For increased adhesion of the ceramic coating to the corrosion resistant substrate material, thermally sprayed metallic bond coatings are used. It is well known that the corrosion environment in such bond coatings between the ceramic top coating and the substrate can be extremely difficult due to the absence of dissolved oxygen, increased concentration of the corrosive electrolytes under the top coating, and galvanic and crevice corrosion mechanisms inside the coating structure. When bond coatings are used, it is of high importance to select the bond layer chemistry and method of production so that the bond coating can survive in such harsh conditions. In the present study, four different bond coatings were studied to evaluate their performance in corrosive acidic electrolytes. The coatings studied were HVOF sprayed Ni-20Cr, Hastelloy C-276 and Ultimet alloy coatings, and plasma sprayed tantalum coating. The substrate material was a solid Hastelloy C-276 metal alloy. The top coating used was plasma sprayed Cr2O3. Corrosion properties of various coating types were studied by electrochemical measurements in sulfuric acid solutions with various concentrations at RT, and by immersion tests at RT and at the temperature of 60°C. The coating microstructures were studied before and after the corrosion tests. The results showed that HVOF sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ultimet alloy coatings were significantly attacked by the sulfuric acid electrolyte, whereas HVOF sprayed Hastelloy C-276 and plasma sprayed Ta coatings performed significantly better.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Surface Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
Contributors: Vuoristo, P., Varis, T., Meschini, D., Bolelli, G., Lusvarghi, L.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 923-930
Publication date: May 2019

Host publication information

Title of host publication: International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition, ITSC 2019 : New Waves of Thermal Spray Technology for Sustainable Growth
Publisher: ASM International
Editors: Azarmi, F., Lau, Y., Veilleux, J., Widener, C., Toma, F., Koivuluoto, H., Balani, K., Li, H., Shinoda, K.
ISBN (Electronic): 9781510888005

Publication series

Name: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85073880821

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Cysteine-tagged chimeric avidin forms high binding capacity layers directly on gold

Cysteine-tagged, genetically engineered avidin named ChiAvd-Cys and wild-type avidin form monolayers or bilayer structures when immobilised directly on gold. Non-specific binding can be reduced by a post-treatment of the avidin layers with a N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]-acrylamide (pTHMMAA) polymer. ChiAvd-Cys showed excellent activity when immobilised on gold. About 70% of the ChiAvd-Cys molecules were able to bind two biotinylated green fluorescent proteins (per avidin tetramer). Amino-biotinylated antibody F(ab′) 2 fragments could be bound to every 4th and 8th ChiAvd-Cys and wild-type avidin molecule, respectively, whereas on average one thiol-biotinylated antibody Fab′-fragment was bound to every ChiAvd-Cys. Antigen binding to the thiol-biotinylated Fab′-fragment bound to the ChiAvd-Cys/pTHMMAA layer was almost twice compared to that of the amino-biotinylated F(ab′) 2-fragments. The high antigen binding was due to a site-directed orientation of the thiol-biotinylated fragments. The ChiAvd-Cys/pTHMMAA layers offer high capacity that may be used to couple biotinylated compounds on biosensor surfaces.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Multi-scaled biodata analysis and modelling (MultiBAM), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, School of Management (JKK), Adult Stem Cells, Tampere University Hospital
Contributors: Vikholm-Lundin, I., Auer, S., Paakkunainen, M., Määttä, J. A. E., Munter, T., Leppiniemi, J., Hytönen, V. P., Tappura, K.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 440-448
Publication date: Aug 2012
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Volume: 171-172
ISSN (Print): 0925-4005
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2012): CiteScore 6.1 SJR 1.412 SNIP 1.653
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Instrumentation, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Condensed Matter Physics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Avidin, Biotin, Cysteine tagged, Non-specific binding, Self-assembled monolayer
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84864284365

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Damage mechanisms and cracking behavior of thermal sprayed WC-CoCr coating under scratch testing

Evaluation of wear mechanisms of thick thermal sprayed cermet coatings is a challenging endeavor given the numerous process-induced structural and chemical changes as well as presence of residual stresses. In an effort to understand the damage processes under contact load and their sensitivity to the process induced microstructural attributes, controlled scratch testing was used. Detailed assessment of the resultant damage zone provided repeatable cracking patterns that are categorized as (i) Localized collapsing of material, (ii) angular cracks, (iii) primary semi-circular and developed semi-circular cracks and (iv) splat delamination. A correlation was established by linking observed damage mechanisms to the process induced microstructural descriptions including role of spray particle conditions and residual stresses. Quantitative correlations between delamination load for cracking and the process induced variable including particle properties as described by the non-dimensional melting index concept as well as residual stresses were established. Melting index captures the combined effect of particles[U+05F3] thermal and kinetic history and thus coating porosity and the process induced decarburization. The results highlight the critical role of coating density and stress evolution during the coating formation. The research points to scratch testing as a powerful evaluation method to characterize contact response of thick thermal spray cermet coatings including operative mechanisms.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Thermal Spray Advance Research Team, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Stony Brook University State University of New York, Center for Thermal Spray Research
Contributors: Ghabchi, A., Sampath, S., Holmberg, K., Varis, T.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 97-105
Publication date: 15 May 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 313
Issue number: 1-2
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 4.1 SJR 1.711 SNIP 2.302
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Damage mechanism, Scratch test, Sliding wear, Thermal spray coating
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84896278052

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Design aspects of all atomic layer deposited TiO2–Fe2O3 scaffold-absorber photoanodes for water splitting

Iron and titanium oxides have attracted substantial attention in photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. However, both materials suffer from intrinsic limitations that constrain the final device performance. In order to overcome the limitations of the two materials alone, their combination has been proposed as a solution to the problems. Here we report on the fabrication of an atomic layer deposited (ALD) Fe2O3 coating on porous ALD-TiO2. Our results show that successful implementation requires complete mixing of the TiO2 and Fe2O3 layers via annealing resulting in the formation of a photoactive iron titanium oxide on the surface. Moreover, we found that incomplete mixing leads to crystallization of Fe2O3 to hematite that is detrimental to the photoelectrochemical performance. IPCE and transient photocurrent measurements performed using UV and visible light excitation confirmed that the iron titanium oxide extends the photocurrent generation to the visible range. These measurements were complemented by transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), which revealed a new band absent in pristine hematite or anatase TiO2 that we assign to charge transfer within the structure. Taken together, these results provide design guidelines to be considered when aiming to combine TiO2 and Fe2O3 for photoelectrochemical applications.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Chemistry & Advanced Materials, Research group: Surface Science, Photonics, Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology
Contributors: Hiltunen, A., Ruoko, T., Iivonen, T., Lahtonen, K., Ali-Löytty, H., Sarlin, E., Valden, M., Leskelä, M., Tkachenko, N.
Pages: 2124-2130
Publication date: 31 Jul 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Sustainable Energy & Fuels
Volume: 2
Issue number: 9
ISSN (Print): 2398-4902
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 3.1 SNIP 0.85
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electrochemistry, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Water splitting, Atomic layer deposition (ALD), Titanium dioxide, Hematite, Cellulose, Template

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) by displacement of antibodies

A molecular layer with low non-specific binding enabling determination of low concentrations of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) by the displacement of antibodies has been developed. Antibody Fab′-fragments at various concentrations have been site-directly immobilised on gold and intercalated with a hydrophilic non-ionic polymer that reduces non-specific binding. Bovine serum albumin conjugated with MDMA and various concentrations of anti-MDMA antibodies were bound to the layer. The amount of conjugates and antibodies bound was dependent on the amount of Fab′-fragments in the layer. Antibodies were also bound to the conjugates physisorbed directly onto the gold surface and in mixtures with the polymer or with a lipoamide. A high displacement of antibodies was observed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on interaction of MDMA with the different layers in buffer solution. No displacement could, however, be observed in saliva with the pure conjugate layer because of a high non-specific binding of proteins. When the conjugates were coupled to the surface through the antibody Fab-fragment/polymer layer, MDMA concentrations as low as 0.02 ng mL-1 (0.14 nM) could easily be detected in buffer. In diluted saliva the lowest limit of detection was 0.4 ng mL-1 enabling determination of drugs from saliva with a cut-off concentration of 2 ng mL-1. The molecular layer of antibody Fab′-fragments and polymer thus shows great potential for binding conjugates and antibodies that can be displaced on the interaction with very low concentrations of small-sized molecules. A low non-specific binding is guaranteed by the presence of the hydrophilic polymer.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Multi-scaled biodata analysis and modelling (MultiBAM), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biosensors Applications AB
Contributors: Vikholm-Lundin, I., Auer, S., Hellgren, A. C.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 28-34
Publication date: 10 Aug 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Volume: 156
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 0925-4005
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 6 SJR 1.485 SNIP 1.752
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Instrumentation, Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Antibody displacement, Drugs of abuse, Ecstasy, Immobilisation, MDMA, Surface plasmon resonance
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79957806721

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Detection of gaseous species during KCl-induced high-temperature corrosion by the means of CPFAAS and CI-APi-TOF

Two different analytical approaches—collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy (CPFAAS) and chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF)—were applied to detect and identify the online gaseous KOH and HCl formed in the addressed high-temperature reactions. Samples of pure KCl, KCl+Cr, KCl+Fe, and KCl+316 L were studied at 550°C under dry and humid conditions with varying oxygen concentrations. The goal was to shed more light on the gas-phase chemistry during KCl-induced corrosion under conditions relevant to biomass combustion. CI-APi-TOF proved to be a valuable tool for high-temperature corrosion studies: HCl was identified to have formed during the reactions under humid conditions. On the contrary, despite the known sensitivity of CPFAAS, the formation of KOH could not be verified in any of the performed measurements.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research area: Aerosol Physics, Research group: The Instrumentation, Emissions, and Atmospheric Aerosols Group, Physics, Research group: Applied Optics, Åbo Akademi University
Contributors: Lehmusto, J., Olin, M., Viljanen, J., Kalliokoski, J., Mylläri, F., Toivonen, J., Dal Maso, M., Hupa, L.
Number of pages: 10
Publication date: 30 Aug 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Materials and Corrosion
ISSN (Print): 0947-5117
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 2.4 SJR 0.433 SNIP 0.878
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Environmental Chemistry, Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: CI-APi-TOF, CPFAAS, gaseous KCl, HCl formation, high-temperature corrosion
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85071360769

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Detergent impurity effect on recycled HDPE: Properties after repetitive processing

High density polyethylene (rHDPE) is extruded 1 to 8 times, with and without detergent, to simulate the effects of impurities on the material and on the artificial ageing process. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, rheology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are measured. According to the results, ageing of rHDPE increases tensile strength, reduces elongation, and enhances side chain branching of the material and thus causes rheological changes. The addition of detergent reduces changes in mechanical properties and rheological behavior but accelerates thermal degradation. VOC and FTIR measurements of the samples with detergent addition show generation of harmful 1,4-dioxane. The amount of total emission, as well as emissions of important perfumes limonene and 1R-α-pinene, decreases during multiple extrusion cycles. Heating of the plastics is found to be a major factor in the VOC emission reduction. Impurities have a notable effect on the artificial ageing results.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, University of Helsinki, Ekokem
Contributors: Mylläri, V., Hartikainen, S., Poliakova, V., Anderson, R., Jönkkäri, I., Pasanen, P., Andersson, M., Vuorinen, J.
Publication date: 15 Aug 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume: 133
Issue number: 31
Article number: 43766
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 3.9 SJR 0.588 SNIP 0.815
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Polymers and Plastics, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Ageing, Degradation, Polyolefins, Recycling
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84992303578

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Development and application of HVOF sprayed spinel protective coating for SOFC interconnects

Protective coatings are needed for metallic interconnects used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks to prevent excessive high-temperature oxidation and evaporation of chromium species. These phenomena affect the lifetime of the stacks by increasing the area-specific resistance (ASR) and poisoning of the cathode. Protective MnCo2O4 and MnCo1.8Fe 0.2O4 coatings were applied on ferritic steel interconnect material (Crofer 22 APU) by high velocity oxy fuel spraying. The substrate-coating systems were tested in long-term exposure tests to investigate their high-temperature oxidation behavior. Additionally, the ASRs were measured at 700 C for 1000 h. Finally, a real coated interconnect was used in a SOFC single-cell stack for 6000 h. Post-mortem analysis was carried out with scanning electron microscopy. The deposited coatings reduced significantly the oxidation of the metal, exhibited low and stable ASR and reduced effectively the migration of chromium.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Thomann, O., Pihlatie, M., Rautanen, M., Himanen, O., Lagerbom, J., Mäkinen, M., Varis, T., Suhonen, T., Kiviaho, J.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 631-639
Publication date: Jun 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 22
Issue number: 5
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 3 SJR 0.933 SNIP 1.366
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: ASR, HVOF spraying, interconnect, protective coating, SOFC, spinel, stack testing
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84878626773

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

Development in additive methods in aramid fiber surface modification to increase fiber-matrix adhesion: A review

This review article highlights and summarizes the recent developments in the field of surface modification methods for aramid fibers. Special focus is on methods that create a multifunctional fiber surface by incorporating nanostructures and enabling mechanical interlocking. To give a complete picture of adhesion promotion with aramids, the specific questions related to the challenges in aramid-matrix bonding are also shortly presented. The main discussion of the surface modification approaches is divided into sections according to how material is added to the fiber surface; (1) coating, (2) grafting and (3) growing. To provide a comprehensive view of the most recent developments in the field, other methods with similar outcomes, are also shortly reviewed. To conclude, future trends and insights are discussed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, University of Twente
Contributors: Palola, S., Vuorinen, J., Noordermeer, J. W., Sarlin, E.
Number of pages: 31
Publication date: 1 Jun 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Coatings
Volume: 10
Issue number: 6
Article number: 556
ISSN (Print): 2079-6412
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Adhesion, Aramid fiber, Mechanical interlocking, Multifunctional fiber surface, Nanostructures, Surface modification
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85087483658

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

Dielectric Breakdown Strength of Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Coatings: Effects of Different Test Arrangements

Dielectric properties (e.g., DC resistivity and dielectric breakdown strength) of insulating thermally sprayed ceramic coatings differ depending on the form of electrical stress, ambient conditions, and aging of the coating, however, the test arrangements may also have a remarkable effect on the properties. In this paper, the breakdown strength of high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed alumina coating was studied using six different test arrangements at room conditions in order to study the effects of different test and electrode arrangements on the breakdown behavior. In general, it was shown that test arrangements have a considerable influence on the results. Based on the results, the recommended testing method is to use embedded electrodes between the voltage electrode and the coating at least in DC tests to ensure a good contact with the surface. With and without embedded electrodes, the DBS was 31.7 and 41.8 V/µm, respectively. Under AC excitation, a rather good contact with the sample surface is, anyhow, in most cases acquired by a rather high partial discharge activity and no embedded electrodes are necessarily needed (DBS 29.2 V/µm). However, immersion of the sample in oil should strongly be avoided because the oil penetrates quickly into the coating affecting the DBS (81.2 V/µm).

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Electrical Engineering, Research area: Power engineering, Smart Energy Systems (SES), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Niittymäki, M., Lahti, K., Suhonen, T., Metsäjoki, J.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 542-551
Publication date: 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 24
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3 SJR 0.735 SNIP 0.989
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: AlO, breakdown strength, coating, dielectric, HVOF, thermal spraying

Bibliographical note

EXT="Metsäjoki, Jarkko"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84925536197

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Digital correction of frequency response mismatches in 2-channel time-interleaved ADCs using adaptive I/Q signal processing

A novel adaptive compensation architecture for the frequency response mismatch of 2-channel time-interleaved ADC (TI-ADC) is proposed for developing high-performance self-adaptive systems. The proposed approach overcomes the existing methods in the sense that the TI-ADC mismatch identification can be performed without allocating a region where only the TI-ADC mismatch spurs are present. This is accomplished via mapping the TI-ADC problem into an I/Q mismatch problem which allows deploying complex statistical signal processing. As proof of concept, the compensation architecture is demonstrated and tested on a 16-bit TI-ADC measured hardware data.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Wireless Communications and Positioning (WICO), Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Research group: Wireless Communications and Positioning, Airbus Defense and Space
Contributors: Singh, S., Valkama, M., Epp, M., Anttila, L., Schlecker, W., Ingber, E.
Number of pages: 13
Pages: 543-555
Publication date: 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing
Volume: 82
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 0925-1030
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 1.2 SJR 0.197 SNIP 0.42
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Hardware and Architecture, Signal Processing
Keywords: Circularity, Complex I/Q signal processing, Digitally assisted analog (DASA), Frequency response mismatch identification, Time-interleaved ADC
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84925535772

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

DNA lesion can facilitate base ionization: Vertical ionization energies of aqueous 8-oxoguanine and its nucleoside and nucleotide

8-Oxoguanine is one of the key products of indirect radiation damage to DNA by reactive oxygen species. Here, we describe ionization of this damaged nucleobase and the corresponding nucleoside and nucleotide in aqueous phase, modeled by the nonequilibrium polarizable continuum model, establishing their lowest vertical ionization energies of 6.8-7.0 eV. We thus confirm that 8-oxoguanine has even lower ionization energy than the parental guanine, which is the canonical nucleobase with the lowest ionization energy. Therefore, it can act as a trap for the cationic hole formed by ionizing radiation and thus protect DNA from further radiation damage. We also model using time-dependent density functional theory and measure by liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy the valence photoelectron spectrum of 8-oxoguanine in water. We show that the calculated higher lying ionization states match well the experiment which, however, is not sensitive enough to capture the electron signal corresponding to the lowest ionization process due to the low solubility of 8-oxoguanine in water.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Helmholtz Center Berlin
Contributors: Palivec, V., Pluharová, E., Unger, I., Winter, B., Jungwirth, P.
Number of pages: 5
Pages: 13833-13837
Publication date: 4 Dec 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 118
Issue number: 48
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.449 SNIP 1.13
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Medicine(all)
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84915764488

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of finish rolling and quench stop temperatures on impact-abrasive wear resistance of 0.35 % carbon direct-quenched steel

Novel high-hardness medium-carbon martensitic laboratory steel has been produced and tested for abrasive wear resistance. Different finish rolling temperatures (FRT) combined with either direct quenching (DQ) or interrupted quenching to 250 °C was applied to vary the content of retained austenite and hardness. The steel carbon content was set to 0.35 % to obtain a surface hardness of approximately 600 HB. Lowering the finish rolling temperature in the range 920-780 °C, i.e. into the non-recrystallization regime resulted in a more elongated prior austenite grain structure, which increased the hardness of the DQ variants without any significant loss of Charpy-V impact toughness. Although increasing the degree of autotempering by raising the quench stop temperature reduces the hardness of the martensitic microstructure, it was found that proper quenching stop temperature could be utilized to achieve balanced toughness and hardness properties. Impact-abrasive wear resistance as measured in impeller-tumbler tests with natural granite as the abrasive demonstrated that wear resistance increased with increasing surface hardness.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Univ of Oulu, SSAB
Contributors: Haiko, O., Miettunen, I., Porter, D., Ojala, N., Ratia, V., Heino, V., Kemppainen, A.
Number of pages: 17
Pages: 5-21
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Tribologia
Volume: 35
Issue number: 1-2
ISSN (Print): 0780-2285
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): SJR 0.367 SNIP 2.184
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Hardness, Impact abrasion, Steel, Wear
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85039708969

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of Hole Transporting Material on Charge Transfer Processes in Zinc Phthalocyanine Sensitized ZnO Nanorods

The photoinduced electron transfer processes were studied for hybrid systems consisting of self-assembled monolayer of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) assembled on ZnO nanorods and a film of organic hole transporting material (HTM) atop. Polythiophene (P3HT) or Spiro-OMeTAD were used as HTM. The study was carried out by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy technique with selective excitation of ZnPc at 680 nm or P3HT at 500 nm. Data analysis revealed that photoexcitation of ZnPc in the structure ZnO|ZnPc|P3HT results in a fast (1.8 ps) electron transfer from ZnPc to ZnO, which is followed by a hole transfer from the ZnPc cation to P3HT roughly in 30 ps. However, in the case of ZnO|ZnPc|Spiro-OMeTAD structure, the primary reaction upon excitation of ZnPc is a fast (0.5 ps) hole transfer from ZnPc to Spiro-OMeTAD, and the second step is electron injection from the ZnPc anion to ZnO in roughly 120 ps. Thus, we demonstrate two structurally very similar hybrid architectures that implement two different mechanisms for photoinduced charge separation found in dye-sensitized or in organic solar cells.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Supramolecular photochemistry
Contributors: Hakola, H., Sariola-Leikas, E., Efimov, A., Tkachenko, N. V.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 7044-7051
Publication date: 21 Apr 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 120
Issue number: 13
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.964 SNIP 1.189
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84964529902

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of melting state on the thermal shock resistance and thermal conductivity of APS ZrO2-7.5wt.% Y2O3 coatings

The microstructures of two types of ZrO2-7.5wt.% Y2O3 (YSZ) coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying (APS) but containing different amounts of columnar grains were investigated through scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Differences in the formation mechanisms of columnar and equiaxed grains were characterized using particles collected in a water container, from which it was found that these mechanisms are closely related to the melted state of the in-flight particles. Furthermore, it was found that the higher the columnar grain concentration of an as-sprayed coating, the higher its thermal shock resistance. This means that it is possible to improve the thermal shock resistance of APS YSZ coatings simply by introducing more columnar grains, as this increases their thermal conductivity. Using this knowledge, YSZ coatings with good thermal shock resistance and a thermal conductivity of 0.81W·(m·K)-1 at 1100°C were successfully prepared.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Song, X., Liu, Z., Suhonen, T., Varis, T., Huang, L., Zheng, X., Zeng, Y.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 132-138
Publication date: 25 May 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 270
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3.9 SJR 0.852 SNIP 1.376
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Air plasma spraying, Columnar grains, Thermal conductivity, Thermal shock resistance, YSZ coatings
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84927174189

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of microstructure on the abrasive wear resistance of steels with hardness 450 HV

Hardness has been considered the main factor controlling the abrasive wear of steels. However, microstructure also affects the wear behavior. Four steels with different microstructures were produced with a Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator and tested for abrasive wear behavior. Different cooling rates and heat treatments were applied to obtain a surface hardness of approximately 450 HV. Mainly tempered martensite, pearlite and some bainite could be observed in the microstructures. Scratch testing with a CETR UMT-2 tribometer was conducted to produce wear tracks. The results revealed that each steel showed distinct wear behavior.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B1 Article in a scientific magazine
Organisations: Research group: Materials Characterization, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu
Contributors: Haiko, O., Heino, V., Porter, D. A., Uusitalo, J., Kömi, J.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 54-57
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: No

Publication information

Journal: Tribologia
Volume: 36
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 0780-2285
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): SJR 0.146 SNIP 0.277
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Abrasion, Microstructure, Steel
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85084455366

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientific

Effect of Multiple Impacts on the Deformation of Wear-Resistant Steels

More durable materials enable reducing the downtime and maintenance costs by decreasing the number of replaced core components in various industrial applications. In this study, the behavior of three wear-resistant quenched martensitic steel grades and the S355 structural steel was examined in controlled impact conditions. The materials' impact behavior was investigated by several methods including residual stress measurements and electron backscatter diffraction. For all studied materials, the size and depth of the impact marks correlate via a logarithmic function to the number of impacts mostly due to work hardening. The underlying deformation behavior of the material depends on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the material. At high impact counts, softer martensitic steel was found to behave differently when compared to the other tested materials as it underwent severe changes in its microstructure and exhibited marked hardening.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), AC2T Research GmbH
Contributors: Ratia, V., Rojacz, H., Terva, J., Valtonen, K., Badisch, E., Kuokkala, V. T.
Publication date: 21 Jan 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Tribology Letters
Volume: 57
Issue number: 2
Article number: 15
ISSN (Print): 1023-8883
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3.7 SJR 1.013 SNIP 1.237
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Deformation, EBSD, Impact, Martensite, Residual stresses, Steel
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84937924221

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of nozzle geometry on the microstructure and properties of hvaf-sprayed wc-10co4cr and cr3c2-25nicr coatings

Thermally sprayed hard metal coatings are the industrial standard solution for numerous demanding applications to improve wear resistance. In the aim of improving coating quality by utilising finer particle size distributions, several approaches have been studied to control the spray temperature. The most viable solution is to use the modern high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) spray process, which has already proven to produce high-quality coatings with dense structures. In HVAF spray process, the particle heating and acceleration can be efficiently controlled by changing the nozzle geometry. In this study, fine WC-10Co4Cr and Cr3C2-25NiCr powders were sprayed with three nozzle geometries to investigate their effect on the particle temperature, velocity and coating microstructure. The study demonstrates that the particle melting and resulting carbide dissolution can be efficiently controlled by changing the nozzle geometry from cylindrical to convergent–divergent. Moreover, the average particle velocity was increased from 780 to over 900 m/s. The increase in particle velocity significantly improved the coating structure and density. Further evaluation was carried out to resolve the effect of particle in-flight parameters on coating structure and cavitation erosion resistance, which was significantly improved in the case of WC-10Co4Cr coatings with the increasing average particle velocity.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, VZÚ Plzeň - Research and Testing Institute, University of West Bohemia
Contributors: Matikainen, V., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P., Schubert, J., Houdková
Number of pages: 15
Pages: 680-694
Publication date: 1 Apr 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 27
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 3.6 SJR 0.694 SNIP 1.117
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: cavitation erosion < properties, chromium carbide < feedstock, diagnostics < processing, HP/HVOF < processing, HVAF < processing, HVOF < processing, WC-CO-Cr < feedstock
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85045088095

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of Phosphatidic Acid on Biomembrane: Experimental and Molecular Dynamics Simulations Study

We consider the impact of phosphatidic acid (namely, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate, DOPA) on the properties of a zwitterionic (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC) bilayer used as a model system for protein-free cell membranes. For this purpose, experimental measurements were performed using differential scanning calorimetry and the Langmuir monolayer technique at physiological pH. Moreover, atomistic-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to gain information on the mixed bilayer's molecular organization. The results of the monolayer studies clearly showed that the DPPC/DOPA mixtures are nonideal and the interactions between lipid species change from attractive, at low contents of DOPA, to repulsive, at higher contents of that component. In accordance with these results, the MD simulations demonstrated that both monoanionic and dianionic forms of DOPA have an ordering and condensing effect on the mixed bilayer at low concentrations. For the DOPA monoanions, this is the result of both (i) strong electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged oxygen of DOPA and the positively charged choline groups of DPPC and (ii) conformational changes of the lipid acyl chains, leading to their tight packing according to the so-called umbrella model, in which large headgroups of DPPC shield the hydrophobic part of DOPA (the conical shape lipid) from contact with water. In the case of the DOPA dianions, cation-mediated clustering was observed. Our results provide a detailed molecular-level description of the lipid organization inside the mixed zwitterionic/PA membranes, which is fully supported by the experimental data.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Physics, Computational Science X (CompX), Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry
Contributors: Kwolek, U., Kulig, W., Wydro, P., Nowakowska, M., Róg, T., Kepczynski, M.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 10042-10051
Publication date: 6 Aug 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 119
Issue number: 31
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.335 SNIP 1.058
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84938696964

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of prior austenite grain size on the abrasive wear resistance of ultra-high strength martensitic steels

Prior austenite grain size has a marked effect on the hardenability, strength, and impact toughness properties of steels. This study was conducted in order to understand the effect of prior austenite grain size and morphology on the mechanical properties and abrasive wear performance of an ultra-high strength steel. A commercial quenched 500 HB grade wear-resistant steel was selected for the study: the steel was austenitized at two different temperatures and compared to the original, as-received quenched condition. The resulting mean prior austenite grain size was ranging from 14 μm to 34 μm. The decrease in grain size improved the low-temperature impact toughness properties. A high stress abrasive wear testing method with natural granite abrasives was utilized for the evaluation of abrasive wear resistance. The results suggest that decreasing the prior austenite grain size improves the abrasive wear resistance with similar hardness level martensitic steels. In addition, high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction measurements revealed formation of ultra-fine grain structures in the severely deformed regions of the wear surfaces.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Materials Characterization, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, Tampere Wear Center
Contributors: Haiko, O., Javaheri, V., Valtonen, K., Kaijalainen, A., Hannula, J., Kömi, J.
Publication date: 15 Aug 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 16 May 2020

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 454-455
Article number: 203336
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Abrasion, Electron microscopy, Hardness, Steel, Wear testing
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85085742604

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of silane integrated sol-gel derived in situ silica on the properties of nitrile rubber

Nitrile rubber/silica composites are prepared by a sol-gel process using tetraethoxysilane as precursor in the presence of γ- mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as a silane coupling agent. Here, we follow a novel processing route where the silica particles are generated inside the rubber matrix before compounding with vulcanizing ingredients. The effect of in situ generated silanized silica on the properties of the rubber composite has been evaluated by studying curing characteristics, morphology, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties. Enhanced rubber-filler interaction of these composites is revealed from stress-strain studies and dynamic mechanical analysis. Excessive use of silane shows an adverse effect on mechanical properties of the composites. Due to finer dispersed state of the in situ silica and enhanced rubber-filler interaction, the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites are improved compared to corresponding ex situ processed composite.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Vodafone Department of Mobile Communications Systems, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden E.V.
Contributors: Kapgate, B. P., Das, C., Basu, D., Das, A., Heinrich, G., Reuter, U.
Publication date: 5 Aug 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume: 131
Issue number: 15
Article number: 40531
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 3.2 SJR 0.664 SNIP 0.98
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Materials Chemistry, Polymers and Plastics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Chemistry(all)
Keywords: elastomers, mechanical properties, morphology, rheology, structure-property relations
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84900485659

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of spraying parameters on the microstructural and corrosion properties of HVAF-sprayed Fe-Cr-Ni-B-C coatings

Thermally sprayed Fe-based coatings have been extensively studied as future solution in order to replace more expensive, harmful and environmentally dangerous Ni- and WC-based coatings for several industrial applications where high corrosion and wear resistance are required. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of spraying parameters on the microstructure and the corrosion resistance of Fe-based coatings manufactured with the High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF) thermal spray process. Six sets of thermal spraying parameters have been chosen and their effect on the overall quality of coatings was investigated. All HVAF coatings showed comparably dense microstructure with near-zero oxidation, proving the high quality of the deposition process. However, higher anti-corrosion and mechanical properties were achieved by increasing the spraying air pressure and decreasing the particle feeding rate without altering the thickness and the overall deposition rate. Powder feeding rate was reported to have a remarkable effect on microstructure and corrosion properties. Coatings with beneficial compressive residual stresses were successfully obtained by increasing air pressure during spraying which resulted in improved microstructural and corrosion properties.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering Enzo Ferrari
Contributors: Milanti, A., Matikainen, V., Koivuluoto, H., Bolelli, G., Lusvarghi, L., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 81-90
Publication date: 15 Sep 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 277
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3.9 SJR 0.852 SNIP 1.376
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Corrosion behaviour, Fe-based coating, HVAF, Structure
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84939782846

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effect of tempering on the impact-abrasive and abrasive wear resistance of ultra-high strength steels

Tempering is an essential part in the fabrication of ultra-high strength steels and it is also widely applied in the processing of wear-resistant steels. In this paper, the effects of different tempering temperatures on the impact-abrasive and abrasive wear properties of martensitic ultra-high strength steels were studied. A novel press-hardening steel with carbon content of 0.4 wt% was received in hot-rolled condition and further austenitized, water-quenched and tempered for 2 h at different temperatures (150–400 °C). Tensile strength values up to 2200MPa and hardness exceeding 650HV were measured. Wear testing was done with impact-abrasive impeller-tumbler and abrasive dry-pot application-oriented test methods simulating mining and mineral handling environments. A laboratory rolled 600HB steel and a commercial 500HB grade wear-resistant steel were included for comparison. The wear surfaces and cross-sections of the samples were thoroughly characterized. Both testing methods produced highly deformed surface layers and strong work-hardening. Wear performance was mainly controlled by the initial hardness of the steels, but differences were found in the highly work-hardened surfaces of the steels.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Univ of Oulu, SSAB
Contributors: Haiko, O., Valtonen, K., Kaijalainen, A., Uusikallio, S., Hannula, J., Liimatainen, T., Kömi, J.
Publication date: 15 Dec 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 440-441
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 5.8 SJR 1.335 SNIP 2.458
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Abrasion, Impact-abrasion, Steel, Tempering, Wear testing
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85074214509

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effects of composition and microstructure on the abrasive wear performance of quenched wear resistant steels

Wear resistant steels are commonly categorized by their hardness, and in the case of quenched wear resistant steels, their Brinell hardness grades are widely considered almost as standards. In this study, the abrasive wear performance of 15 commercially available 400 HB grade quenched wear resistant steels from all over the world were tested with granite gravel in high stress conditions. The aim was to evaluate the real wear performance of nominally similar steels. Also properties such as hardness, hardness profiles, microstructures and chemical compositions of the steels were studied and reasons for the differences in their wear performance further discussed. In terms of mass loss, over 50% differences were recorded in the abrasive wear performance of the studied steels. Variations in the chemical compositions were linked to the auto-tempered microstructures of the steels, and the microstructural characteristics were further linked to their ultimate wear behavior. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization, Tampere University of Technology, Metso Minerals, Inc.
Contributors: Ojala, N., Valtonen, K., Heino, V., Kallio, M., Aaltonen, J., Siitonen, P., Kuokkala, V. T.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 225-232
Publication date: 15 Sep 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 317
Issue number: 1-2
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 4.1 SJR 1.711 SNIP 2.302
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Mechanics of Materials
Keywords: Abrasion, Hardness, Microstructure, Mineral processing, Steel, Wear testing
Electronic versions: 

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=mol,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-11-28<br/>Publisher name: Elsevier

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 1185

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Efficient photon upconversion at remarkably low annihilator concentrations in a liquid polymer matrix: when less is more

A green-to-blue triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion of 24.5% quantum yield was achieved at a remarkably low 600 μM annihilator concentration in a viscous polymer matrix. This was made possible by utilizing a ZnTPP-based photosensitizer with exceptionally long 11 ms phosphorescence lifetime. Higher 3 mM annihilator concentration resulted in lower 24% upconversion quantum yield.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Chemistry and Bioengineering
Contributors: Durandin, N. A., Isokuortti, J., Efimov, A., Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, E., Tkachenko, N. V., Laaksonen, T.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 14029-14032
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Chemical Communications
Volume: 54
Issue number: 99
ISSN (Print): 1359-7345
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 11.6 SJR 2.177 SNIP 1.145
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Catalysis, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Ceramics and Composites, Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: triplet-triplet annihilation, triplet-triplet energy transfer, triplet state lifetime, upconversion, triplet fusion
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85058301188

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Electrospun Black Titania Nanofibers: Influence of Hydrogen Plasma-Induced Disorder on the Electronic Structure and Photoelectrochemical Performance

This work encompasses a facile method for tailoring surface defects in electrospun TiO2 nanofibers by employing hydrogen plasma treatments. This amiable processing method was proven with SQUID, EPR, and XPS to be highly effective in generating oxygen vacancies, accompanied by the reduction of Ti4+ centers to Ti3+, resulting in the formation of black titania. The treatment temperature was found to affect the Ti3+/Ti4+ ratios and surface valence, while preserving the original 1D morphology of the titania fibers. Ab initio DFT calculations showed that a high concentration of oxygen vacancies is highly efficient in producing midgap states that enhance the system absorption over the whole visible range, as observed with UV/vis/NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Pristine TiO2 nanofibers produced a photocurrent density of similar to 0.02 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V vs RHE, whereas the hydrogen plasma treatment resulted in up to a 10-fold increase in the photoelectrochemical performance.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Supramolecular photochemistry, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Italy, Univ Cologne, University of Cologne, Dept Chem, Chair Inorgan & Mat Chem, Padova University, INSTM, J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Multiscale Materials Modelling and Tribo Simulation, CNR-IENI
Contributors: Lepcha, A., Maccato, C., Mettenbörger, A., Andreu, T., Mayrhofer, L., Walter, M., Olthof, S., Ruoko, T. P., Klein, A., Moseler, M., Meerholz, K., Morante, J. R., Barreca, D., Mathur, S.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 18835-18842
Publication date: 20 Aug 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 119
Issue number: 33
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.886 SNIP 1.246
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)
Keywords: ROOM-TEMPERATURE, WATER, SURFACE, NANOSTRUCTURES, NANOPARTICLES, PHOTOCATALYSIS, INSULATORS, CONVERSION, DEFECTS, ARRAYS
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84939825598

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Energetic origin of proton affinity to the air/water interface

Recent experimental and theoretical studies showed the preference of the hydronium ion for the vapor/water interface. To investigate the mechanism responsible for the surface propensity of this ion, we performed a series of novel quantum chemical simulations combined with the theory of solutions. The solvation free energy of the H3O+ solute placed at the interface was obtained as -97.9 kcal/mol, being more stable by 3.6 kcal/mol than that of the solute embedded in the bulk. Further, we decomposed the solvation free energies into contributions from the water molecules residing in the oxygen and the hydrogen sides of the solute to clarify the origin of the surface preference. When the solute was displaced from the bulk to the interface, it was shown that the free energy contribution from the oxygen side is destabilized by ∼10 kcal/mol because of a reduction of the number of surrounding solvent water molecules. It was observed, however, that the free energy contribution due to the hydrogen side of the solute is unexpectedly stabilizing and surpasses the destabilization in the opposite side. We found that the stabilization in the hydrogen side originates from the solute-solvent interaction in the medium range beyond the nearest neighbor. It was also revealed that the free energy contribution due to the solute's electronic polarization amounts to about the half of the total free energy change associated with the solute displacement from the bulk to the interface.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Tohoku University, Osaka University, Kyoto Women's University, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Japan Science and Technology Agency
Contributors: Takahashi, H., Maruyama, K., Karino, Y., Morita, A., Nakano, M., Jungwirth, P., Matubayasi, N.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 4745-4751
Publication date: 28 Apr 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 115
Issue number: 16
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 6.3 SJR 1.801 SNIP 1.213
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79955461660

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Energy dissipation in natural rubber latex films: The effect of stabilizers, leaching and acetone-treatment

Natural rubber (NR) is a versatile material possessing outstanding mechanical properties, which can be used in multiple applications including the rapidly developing dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs). One of the drawbacks of the existing DEGs is their low efficiency, which can be improved by lowering the dielectric and mechanical losses originating from the material. Therefore, the present research was focusing on assessing the ways to minimize the dielectric and mechanical losses of NR films rather than developing a DEG. In this article, the effect of natural proteins and the rubber stabilizers on energy dissipation of NR films was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of sample posttreatment (with water and acetone), curing and time after cure was discussed. As a result, deproteinized NR stabilized by ammonium caseinate outperformed unmodified NR due to reduced dielectric losses, mechanical hysteresis and stress relaxation. Moreover, the posttreatment methods were found to moderately reduce the material-relates losses.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology
Contributors: Shakun, A., Sarlin, E., Vuorinen, J.
Number of pages: 15
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Polymers and Plastics, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: dielectric properties, elastomers, mechanical properties, rubber
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85087303061

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Entrapped Styrene Butadiene Polymer Chains by Sol-Gel-Derived Silica Nanoparticles with Hierarchical Raspberry Structures

A sol-gel transformation of liquid silica precursor to solid silica particles was carried out in a one-pot synthesis way, where a solution of styrene butadiene elastomer was present. The composites, thus produced, offered remarkable improvements of mechanical and dynamic mechanical performances compared to precipitated silica. The morphological analysis reveals that the alkoxy-based silica particles resemble a raspberry structure when the synthesis of the silica was carried out in the presence of polymer molecules and represent a much more open silica-network structure. However, in the absence of the polymer, the morphology of the silica particles is found to be different. It is envisaged that the special morphology of the in situ synthesized silica particles contributes to the superior reinforcement effects, which are associated with a strong silica-rubber interaction by rubber chains trapped inside the raspberry-like silica aggregates. Therefore, the interfaces are characterized in detail by low-field solid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy, 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Low-field 1H NMR-based double-quantum experiments provide a quantitative information about the cross-link density of the silica-filled rubber composites and about the influence of silane coupling agent on the chemical cross-link density of the network and correlates well with equilibrium swelling measurements. The special microstructure of the alkoxy-based silica was found to be associated with the interaction between alkoxy-based silica and rubber chains as a consequence of particle growth in the presence of rubber chains.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden E.V., Vodafone Department of Mobile Communications Systems, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Contributors: Vaikuntam, S. R., Stöckelhuber, K. W., Subramani Bhagavatheswaran, E., Wießner, S., Scheler, U., Saalwächter, K., Formanek, P., Heinrich, G., Das, A.
Number of pages: 13
Pages: 2010-2022
Publication date: 15 Feb 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume: 122
Issue number: 6
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 5.8 SJR 1.109 SNIP 0.979
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85042152539

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Envolvente de Vidrio Electrocrómico

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Uppsala Univ, Uppsala University, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem Angstrom, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
Contributors: Rubio Hernandez, R., Marshall-Berenguer, R., De la Flor San Vicente, L.
Publication date: 2004

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Foro ARCA II. Arquitectura y Calidad de vida. : Edificación y sostenibilidad: un compromiso posible
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Architecture , Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Glass, Smart Materials, Light, intelligent facade

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Erosion–corrosion resistance of various stainless steel grades in high-temperature sulfuric acid solution

Two austenitic stainless steel grades, 316L and 904L, and three duplex stainless steel grades, LDX 2101, 2205, and 2507, were erosion–corrosion tested as impeller blade materials for hydrometallurgical applications. Samples were attached to the pressure and suction sides of an impeller and were tested in 50 g/l H2SO4 and 0.5 g/l Fe2(SO4)3 for 72 h at 80°C and 95 °C in a small-scale reactor using quartz sand slurry. The results showed that under lower erosion intensity the ranking of the grades was similar to that in pure erosion. Under higher erosion intensity the ranking of the grades changed completely: lean alloys LDX 2101 and 316L suffered from the highest mass losses followed by 2205, 2507, and 904L. To clarify this behavior, the ability of the grades to repassivate was investigated with scratch tests. It was found that the ranking could be explained by the repassivation rates. The only exception was that 2507 showed a similar repassivation rate to 904L but its erosion–corrosion mass loss under higher erosion intensity was larger. One contributing factor to this was found to be the selective dissolution of the austenite phase of all the tested duplex grades. The prerequisites for the galvanic coupling between the phases that was responsible for the selective dissolution are discussed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Outotec Research Center, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Lindgren, M., Siljander, S., Suihkonen, R., Pohjanne, P., Vuorinen, J.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 10-21
Publication date: 15 Oct 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 364-365
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 5.3 SJR 1.588 SNIP 2.105
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Mechanics of Materials
Keywords: Erosion–corrosion, Slurry, Stainless steels, Sulfuric acid, Wear

Bibliographical note

EXT="Lindgren, M."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84975744612

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Erosion wear of vinylester matrix composites in aqueous and acidic environments at elevated temperatures

Slurry erosion wear performance of glass fibre reinforced vinylester composite (FRP) has been studied using a pilot-scale erosion test apparatus. Tests were conducted at elevated temperatures in aqueous and acidic environments. When using fine quartz as an abrasive material, FRP showed higher mass losses in the aqueous environment than in the acidic conditions, especially at higher temperatures. In this case, the FRP degradation was governed by the penetration of the used medium into the FRP structure. According to the absorption studies, the weight gain of the laminate was more pronounced in the water immersion compared to the acidic solution, which can be a prediction of an increased degradation rate and explain the higher wear in the aqueous medium. When the abrasive material was changed from fine to coarse quartz, the removal of the shielding matrix phase was extensive and a direct route for the acidic solution to the fibres was created causing more severe damage. This was also shown in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, where the samples tested in the acidic solution showed extensive fibre flattening along the erosion flux. By increasing the test temperature close to the boiling point of the medium, an increase in the FRP wear could be seen. The increase in the rotation speed, on the other hand, did not automatically mean higher mass losses. This shows that the wear environment in the present test device is highly complicated with several interrelated parameters affecting the results.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Outotec Research Center
Contributors: Suihkonen, R., Lindgren, M., Siljander, S., Sarlin, E., Vuorinen, J.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 7-16
Publication date: 15 Jul 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 358-359
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 5.3 SJR 1.588 SNIP 2.105
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Mechanics of Materials
Keywords: Erosion testing, Erosion-corrosion, Polymer-matrix composite, Slurry erosion

Bibliographical note

EXT="Lindgren, Mari"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84962767507

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Erosion wear performance of WC-10Co4Cr and Cr3C2-25NiCr coatings sprayed with high-velocity thermal spray processes

Thermally sprayed hardmetal coatings are widely used to protect components and surfaces against wear in various applications. Hard and wear resistant coatings increase the component lifetime and can generate significant savings promoting ecological manufacturing. This study focuses on the performance of tungsten carbide (WC-10Co4Cr)and chromium carbide (Cr 3 C 2 -25NiCr)based hardmetal coatings sprayed with gaseous and liquid fuelled high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF)spray processes and a modern high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF)spray process. The coating characterisation revealed reduced carbide dissolution with decreasing process temperature and denser feedstock powder particles. Smaller carbide size in the Cr 3 C 2 -25NiCr material significantly reduced the carbide rebounding leading to higher carbide content in the sprayed coating and improved erosion wear resistance. Most significant improvements were observed in cavitation erosion for HVAF sprayed WC-10Co4Cr coatings (0.4 μm/h)compared to the HVOF sprayed coatings (1.5–3.7 μm/h). The cavitation erosion resistance of the HVAF sprayed coatings was almost at the level of the WC-10Co sintered bulk (0.2 μm/h).

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Tampere University, VZÚ Plzeň - Research and Testing Institute
Contributors: Matikainen, V., Rubio Peregrina, S., Ojala, N., Koivuluoto, H., Schubert, J., Houdková, Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 17
Pages: 196-212
Publication date: 25 Jul 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 370
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 5.8 SJR 0.938 SNIP 1.614
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Cavitation erosion, Coating, Hardmetal, Slurry erosion, Thermal spray

Bibliographical note

INT=msee,"Rubio Peregrina, S."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85065223119

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Erosive-abrasive wear behavior of carbide-free bainitic and boron steels compared in simulated field conditions

The wear resistance of carbide-free bainitic microstructures have recently shown to be excellent in sliding, sliding-rolling, and erosive-abrasive wear. Boron steels are often an economically favorable alternative for similar applications. In this study, the erosive-abrasive wear performance of the carbide-free bainitic and boron steels with different heat treatments was studied in mining-related conditions. The aim was to compare these steels and to study the microstructural features affecting wear rates. The mining-related condition was simulated with an application oriented wear test method utilizing dry abrasive bed of 8–10 mm granite particles. Different wear mechanisms were found; in boron steels, micro-cutting and micro-ploughing were dominating mechanisms, while in the carbide-free bainitic steels, also impact craters with thin platelets were observed. Moreover, the carbide-free bainitic steels had better wear performance, which can be explained by the different microstructure. The carbide-free bainitic steels had fine ferritic-austenitic microstructure, whereas in boron steels microstructure was martensitic. The level of retained austenite was quite high in the carbide-free bainitic steels and that was one of the factors improving the wear performance of these steels. The hardness gradients with orientation of the deformation zone on the wear surfaces were one of the main affecting factors as well. Smoother work hardened hardness profiles were considered beneficial in these erosive-abrasive wear conditions.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization, Lulea University of Technology, Univ of Oulu
Contributors: Vuorinen, E., Heino, V., Ojala, N., Haiko, O., Hedayati, A.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 3-13
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 24 Nov 2017

Publication information

Journal: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology
Volume: 232
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 1350-6501
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 2.6 SJR 0.636 SNIP 1.176
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: abrasive wear, carbide free bainitic, erosive wear, field test, microstructure, Steel
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85040443068

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Erosive wear of filled vinylester composites in water and acidic media at elevated temperature

Due to their good corrosion properties, fibre reinforced polymer composites are often used instead of metals for example in hydrometallurgical processes. However, the erosion performance of polymer composites is rather poor when compared to metals. This study focused on the effect of mineral fillers on the erosion performance of vinylester composites. The erosion rates were tested both in water and in acidic environments at high temperature. To improve the erosion performance of the filled composites in these environments, to increase the filler particle hardness was an effective method. Within similar filler materials, better adhesion to the matrix improved the erosion performance, regardless if it was achieved by adhesion promoters or better mechanical interlocking. The hardness of the matrix was found to be disadvantageous for filled composites, although for pure vinylesters higher hardness decreased erosion rate. At the high service temperature, softer matrix accommodated more deformations and better absorption of energy of the impacting erosive particles. Consequently, improved adherence of the filler particles into the matrix and slower erosion rate was observed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Outotec Research Center
Contributors: Sarlin, E., Saarimäki, M., Sironen, R., Lindgren, M., Siljander, S., Kanerva, M., Vuorinen, J.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 84-92
Publication date: 15 Nov 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 390-391
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 1.386 SNIP 2.227
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Erosion, FRP, Glass fibre, Mineral fillers, Vinylester
Electronic versions: 
URLs: 

Bibliographical note

INT=mol,"Sironen, Reija"
EXT="Lindgren, Mari"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85024891666

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Erosive wear of various stainless steel grades used as impeller blade materials in high temperature aqueous slurry

Two austenitic stainless steel grades, 316L and 904L, and three duplex stainless steel grades, LDX 2101, 2205, and 2507, were erosion tested as impeller blade materials for hydrometallurgical applications. Samples were attached to the pressure and suction sides of an impeller and were tested for 72. h at 80. °C and 95. °C in a small-scale reactor using quartz sand slurry. Based on the mass losses measured, the steel grades could be ranked into two distinct categories; LDX 2101 and 2507 comprising the category with the better erosion resistance. The categories were the same for the pressure and suction side tests even though the erosion mechanism differed. In most cases, erosion was more severe in the suction side samples, which has practical implications for wear protection design. In the pressure side samples, the variation in the erosion mass loss with different experimental parameters was in line with earlier reported findings. In contrast, in the suction side samples, under some experimental conditions, increasing tip speed and increasing particle size were found to reduce erosion mass loss. This emphasizes the fact that the erosivity of particles for the impeller suction side cannot be deduced solely based on particle size. The reasons for the observed behavior are discussed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Outotec Research Center
Contributors: Lindgren, M., Suihkonen, R., Vuorinen, J.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 391-400
Publication date: 5 Apr 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 328-329
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 4.2 SJR 1.512 SNIP 2.027
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Mechanics of Materials
Keywords: Erosion, Impellers, Mixing, Slurry, Stainless steels, Wear

Bibliographical note

EXT="Lindgren, M."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84926200934

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

ESD qualification data used as the basis for building electrostatic discharge protected areas

ESD control programs that are based on the standards IEC61340-5-1 and ANSI/ESD S20.20 are targeted to provide safer handling of electronic parts now susceptible to damage by electrostatic discharge. However, ESD failures have occurred in EPA even when all standard control methods are met. To further improve EPAs, ESD control programs should be updated to cover all known common discharge scenarios, and multiple parallel ESD source parameters should be used to assess the level of ESD risks. In addition, a reliable ESD risk assessment should be based on discharge source circuit analysis and product sensitivity tests using the real discharge waveforms found in EPA.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Research group: Wireless Identification and Sensing Systems Research Group, Sensing Systems for Wireless Medicine (MediSense), Cascade Metrology
Contributors: Tamminen, P., Viheriäkoski, T., Sydänheimo, L., Ukkonen, L.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 174-181
Publication date: 1 Oct 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Electrostatics
Volume: 77
Article number: 3024
ISSN (Print): 0304-3886
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 2.4 SJR 0.48 SNIP 1.189
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Condensed Matter Physics, Biotechnology
Keywords: CDM, Control program, EPA, ESD, HBM, Standards
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84940760492

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Evaluation of crushing strength of spray-dried MgAl2O4 granule beds

The crushing strengths of four different experimental magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) granule beds were monitored with the axial die pressing test after heat treatments. Precursor, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and magnesium oxide (MgO) as Mg precursor and aluminium oxide hydroxide Al(O)OH and α-Al2O3 as Al precursor, were used for experimental granules, which were manufactured via a dispersion manufacturing and spray-drying process. After spray-drying, granules were heat treated in air at 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300 and 1400 °C. In order to understand the potential effect of precursor, phase structure, morphology, particle size distribution and density of granules on crushing strength behaviour, scanning X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used together with electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction (LDPA) for characterisation. All precursor mixtures formed spherical granules during the spray-drying process and pure spinel phase structure during heat treatment. The crushing strength test results indicated that the Al precursor clearly affected the crushing strength behaviour of experimental granule beds. The highest strength was observed for granule beds with Al(O)OH) as Al and Mg(OH)2 as Mg precursor.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Kanerva, U., Suhonen, T., Lagerbom, J., Levänen, E.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 8494-8500
Publication date: 1 Aug 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Ceramics International
Volume: 41
Issue number: 7
ISSN (Print): 0272-8842
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 4 SJR 0.823 SNIP 1.353
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Ceramics and Composites, Process Chemistry and Technology, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Axial pressing, Granule, MgAl<inf>2</inf>O<inf>4</inf> spinel, The crushing strength

Bibliographical note

EXT="Lagerbom, Juha"
EXT="Kanerva, Ulla"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84929271760

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Evaluation of Residual Stresses and Their Influence on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of High Kinetic HVOF and HVAF-Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings

Thermal spray processes have been developing toward lower particle temperature and higher velocity. Latest generation high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) can produce very dense coating structures due to the higher kinetic energy typical for these thermal spray processes. Thermally sprayed coatings usually contain residual stresses, which are formed by a superposition of thermal mismatch, quenching and, in case of high kinetic energy technologies, peening stresses. These stresses may have a significant role on the mechanical response and fatigue behavior of the coating. Understanding these effects is mandatory for damage tolerant coating design and wear performance. For instance, wear-resistant WC-CoCr coatings having high compressive stresses show improved cavitation erosion performance. In this study, comparison of residual stresses in coatings sprayed by various thermal spray systems HVOF (Thermico CJS and Oerlikon Metco DJ Hybrid) and HVAF (Kermetico AcuKote) was made. Residual stresses were determined through thickness by utilizing Tsui and Clyne analytical model. The real temperature and deposition stress data were collected in the coating process by in situ technique. That data were used for the model to represent realistic residual stress state of the coating. The cavitation erosion and abrasion wear resistance of the coatings were tested, and relationships between residual stresses and wear resistance were discussed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Surface Engineering, Research group: Applied Material Science, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Varis, T., Suhonen, T., Laakso, J., Jokipii, M., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 17
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: cavitation-resistant coatings, fracture toughness, HVAF, HVOF, in situ monitoring, residual stresses, WC-CoCr
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85084794360

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Evaluation of screen printed silver trace performance and long-term reliability against environmental stress on a low surface energy substrate

Otherwise attractive substrate materials for printed electronics may have such surface characteristics that make patterning challenging. This article focuses on the printability and performance characterization of conductive patterns on a low surface energy substrate. Surface characteristics of a hydrophobic polyphenylene ether (PPE) substrate and the effects of surface modification using chemical and physical pre-treatments were studied. In addition, silver ink performance and its reliability on this substrate were evaluated. The surface was characterized by surface energy measurements and surface profile analysis. Screen-printed test patterns were characterized to evaluate print quality and electrical and mechanical performance. A further inspection of substrate-ink interactions was conducted using environmental reliability tests. It was observed that ink adhesion could be significantly promoted by choosing a suitable surface pre-treatment method. Low sheet resistances were obtained, and thus, suitable inks for further characterization were found. In addition, it was observed that environmental stress has a significant impact on ink-substrate interactions.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Electronics and Communications Engineering, Nano Communication Centre
Contributors: Mikkonen, R., Mäntysalo, M.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 54-65
Publication date: 1 Jul 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Microelectronics Reliability
Volume: 86
ISSN (Print): 0026-2714
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 2.6 SJR 0.376 SNIP 1.017
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Condensed Matter Physics, Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Adhesion, Environmental stress, PPE, Printed electronics, Reliability, Surface modification
Electronic versions: 
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85047240351

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Experimental and numerical investigation of fretting fatigue behavior in bolted joints

Bolted joints may suffer from fretting damage which can significantly decrease fatigue life. A testing arrangement was developed to study the effect of different operating and design parameters of a single bolted joint on fretting fatigue life. Fretting fatigue stress-life (S-N) tests were conducted to investigate in particular the effect of bolt preload and cyclic bulk loading on fatigue life. Fretting fatigue life decreased when increasing the preload and also when increasing the bulk stress. The Digital Image Correlation method was applied to measure tangential displacements close to the contact. A corresponding finite element model of the test setup was used to analyze contact variables in greater detail. The numerical results corresponded well to the experimental results.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Department of Materials Science, Wärtsilä Finland Oy
Contributors: Juoksukangas, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 440-448
Publication date: 1 Nov 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Tribology International
Volume: 103
ISSN (Print): 0301-679X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 1.386 SNIP 2.125
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Contact, Fatigue, Finite-element method, Fretting

Bibliographical note

INT=MOL, "Juoksukangas, Janne"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84981164556

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Exploring the role of stearic acid in modified zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides and their acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposites

The proposed study attempted to explore the role of stearic acid modification on the properties of zinc-aluminum based layered double hydroxides (LDH) and their composites with acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). Three distinctive LDH systems were adapted for such comparison; an unmodified LDH and two stearic acid modified LDH. The use of zinc oxide and stearic acid in the rubber formulation was avoided as the modified LDH would be able to deliver the necessary activators for the vulcanization process. Emphasis was predominantly given to reconnoiter the merits of stearic acid modification on the increase in interlayer distance of the LDH. X-ray diffraction studies and transmission electron microscope morphological investigations of LDH powders indicated that modification with stearic acid increased the interlayer spacing which would favor the intercalation of NBR polymer chains into the layered space. However, stress-strain studies indicated better mechanical properties for composites with unmodified LDH. Composites with LDH showed higher crosslinking densities than conventionally sulfur cured control compounds using zinc oxide/stearic acid as activators. This was evident from equilibrium swelling method as well as statistical theory of rubber elasticity.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Vodafone Department of Mobile Communications Systems, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden E.V., Technische Universität Dresden, Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Contributors: Eshwaran, S. B., Basu, D., Vaikuntam, S. R., Kutlu, B., Wiessner, S., Das, A., Naskar, K., Heinrich, G.
Publication date: 1 Mar 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume: 132
Issue number: 9
Article number: 41539
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3.6 SJR 0.587 SNIP 0.846
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Polymers and Plastics, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: crosslinking, elastomers, mechanical properties, properties and characterization, rubber
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84913616731

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Fabrication and Characterization of Amorphous Alumina-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings by Air Plasma Spraying

Almost fully amorphous coatings of near-eutectic alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Al2O3-YSZ) were prepared by air plasma spraying using Al2O3and 8 mol.% YSZ crystalline-mixed powders. The coatings consist of mostly an amorphous phase with a small amount of nanocrystals. Various characterization techniques were used to understand coating formation and the origins of the different phases within the coatings. The formation of the mostly amorphous structure is attributed to the high glass-forming ability of Al2O3-YSZ and the appropriate plasma spraying conditions. A small number of nanocrystals are produced during crystallization of the incoming molten droplets or by recrystallization of the solidified splats by accumulated heat. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the coatings have a dense, layered structure with low porosity, and bright-field transmission electron microscopy images indicate sharp interface rather than grit-blasted wavy surface between splats and substrates in the coatings. The as-sprayed amorphous coatings crystallized at around 920 °C and micro-hardness of the as-sprayed amorphous coatings was 8.12 GPa.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Song, X., Suhonen, T., Varis, T., Huang, L., Zheng, X., Zeng, Y.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 1302-1311
Publication date: 25 Nov 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 23
Issue number: 8
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 3.1 SJR 0.837 SNIP 1.681
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia, amorphous phases, atmospheric plasma spraying, micro-hardness, nanocrystals, thermal stability
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84919593683

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Fabrication of ssDNA/Oligo(ethylene glycol) monolayers and patterns by exchange reaction promoted by ultraviolet light irradiation

Using a representative test system, we present here a versatile approach to prepare mixed monolayers of thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) substituted alkanethiols (OEG-AT) in a broad range of compositions as well as ssDNA/OEG-AT patterns of desired shape imbedded into a biorepulsive background. The procedure involves two steps. First, a primary, well-defined OEG-AT monolayer on a solid support is exposed to UV light in either homogeneous or lithographic fashion. Second, the exchange reaction between the damaged OEG-AT species in the film and ssDNA substituents in solution occurs, resulting in formation of ssDNA/OEG-AT monolayer or pattern. The above procedure relies on commercially available compounds and does not require vacuum, which simplifies its application in research and industrial laboratories. The composition of the mixed films or ssDNA/OEG-AT spots (lithography) can be precisely adjusted by UV dose in an almost entire composition range. It was demonstrated that the procedure can be performed with UV light of different wavelengths (254 or 365 nm), which opens new possibilities for lithography. Using advanced spectroscopic tools, it was shown that ssDNA molecules imbedded into the OEG-AT matrix maintain their identity and intact character as well as exhibit predominant upright orientation typical of one-component films of thiolated ssDNA. The OEG-AT constituents of the mixed monolayers were found to be intact as well, with all UV damaged OEG-AT species being exchanged for ssDNA. Finally, a representative ssDNA/OEG-AT pattern was fabricated.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Integrated Technologies for Tissue Engineering Research (ITTE), Universitat Heidelberg
Contributors: Khan, M. N., Zharnikov, M.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 24883-24893
Publication date: 27 Nov 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 117
Issue number: 47
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 8.3 SJR 2.143 SNIP 1.432
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84889582340

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Fabrication of ssDNA/oligo(ethylene glycol) monolayers by promoted exchange reaction with thiol and disulfide substituents

Biorepulsive oligo(ethylene glycol)-substituted alkanethiolate (OEG-AT) monolayers on gold can serve as primary templates for promoted (by electron irradiation) exchange reaction with thiolated ssDNA species, resulting in the formation of mixed OEG-AT/ssDNA monolayers of desired composition. Here we test the ability of alternative, disulfide precursors to serve as substituents in such a reaction. Two representative molecules, based on adenine-based homo-oligonucleotide (25-mer), were used, viz., asymmetric disulfide with a short second chain (A25SSOH) and symmetric disulfide (A25SSA25). The results were compared to the reference system of thiolated ssDNA (A25SH). Both disulfide precursors were found to be suitable for the reaction, further extending the types of commercially available compounds which can be used for this approach. A25SSOH exhibited quite high efficiency, similar to A25SH, while the efficiency of A25SSA25 was noticeably lower, especially at low irradiation doses (2). Also, the single component, A25SSA25-based ssDNA monolayer, was of lower quality as compared to the films prepared from the A25SH and A25SSOH precursors. The above observations were explained by the bulky character and conformational flexibility of A25SSA25, which hinder the proper assembly and efficient exchange reaction.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Integrated Technologies for Tissue Engineering Research (ITTE), Universitat Heidelberg
Contributors: Khan, M. N., Zharnikov, M.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 3093-3101
Publication date: 13 Feb 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 118
Issue number: 6
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 8.4 SJR 2.032 SNIP 1.434
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84894037828

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Fluid flow simulations meet high-speed video: Computer vision comparison of droplet dynamics

Hypothesis: While multiphase flows, particularly droplet dynamics, are ordinary in nature as well as in industrial processes, their mathematical and computational modelling continue to pose challenging research tasks - patent approaches for tackling them are yet to be found. The lack of analytical flow field solutions for non-trivial droplet dynamics hinders validation of computer simulations and, hence, their application in research problems. High-speed videos and computer vision algorithms can provide a viable approach to validate simulations directly against experiments. Experiments: Droplets of water (or glycerol-water mixtures) impacting on both hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were imaged with a high-speed camera. The corresponding configurations were simulated using a lattice-Boltzmann multiphase scheme. Video frames from experiments and simulations were compared, by means of computer vision, over entire droplet impact events. Findings: The proposed experimental validation procedure provides a detailed, dynamic one-on-one comparison of a droplet impact. The procedure relies on high-speed video recording of the experiments, computer vision, and on a software package for the analyzation routines. The procedure is able to quantitatively validate computer simulations against experiments and it is widely applicable to multiphase flow systems in general.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), BioFluidix GmbH, Faculty of Information Technology, Jyväskylän yliopisto
Contributors: Kulju, S., Riegger, L., Koltay, P., Mattila, K., Hyväluoma, J.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 48-56
Publication date: 15 Jul 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Volume: 522
ISSN (Print): 0021-9797
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 9 SJR 1.29 SNIP 1.342
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Biomaterials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Colloid and Surface Chemistry
Keywords: Computer vision, Droplet, Experimental, High-speed video, Hydrophobic, Lattice Boltzmann, Simulation

Bibliographical note

EXT="Kulju, S."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85044153494

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Fluorimetric oxygen sensor with an efficient optical read-out for in vitro cell models

This paper presents a phase fluorimetric sensor for the monitoring of the oxygen concentration in in vitro cell models. The sensing surface of the sensor consists of oxygen sensitive fluorescent dyes (platinum(II) octaethylporphyrinketone) embedded in a thin polystyrene film. In order to optimize the optical read-out scheme of the sensor, we carried out electromagnetic simulations of a fluorescently doped polystyrene film deposited on a glass-water interface. The simulation results showed highly anisotropic angular emission distribution with the maximum irradiance being at super critical angles, which attracts tailored optical designs to maximize the fluorescence collection efficiency. For this purpose, we applied an efficient optical read-out scheme based on an in-contact parabolic lens. The use of parabolic lens also facilitates confocal total internal reflection excitation from the substrate side. This makes the excitation effective and insensitive to biofouling or other optical changes in the sensing surface and, more importantly, greatly reduces the amount of excitation power radiated into the cell culture chamber. Experimental results show that when applied together with phase fluorimetric lifetime sensing, this optical scheme allows one to use thin films (

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: BioMediTech, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Research group: Micro and Nanosystems Research Group, Research area: Microsystems, Research group: Sensor Technology and Biomeasurements (STB), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, BioMediTech Institute and Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering
Contributors: Välimäki, H., Verho, J., Kreutzer, J., Kattipparambil Rajan, D., Ryynänen, T., Pekkanen-Mattila, M., Ahola, A., Tappura, K., Kallio, P., Lekkala, J.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 738-746
Publication date: 1 Oct 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Volume: 249
ISSN (Print): 0925-4005
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 9.3 SJR 1.406 SNIP 1.453
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Instrumentation, Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Cardiac cells, Enhanced optical read-out, Fluorimetric oxygen sensor, in vitro cell models, PtOEPK, Thin film fluorescence
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85019164799

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Formation mechanisms, structure, and properties of HVOF-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings: An approach toward process maps

Our study focuses on understanding the damage tolerance and performance reliability of WC-CoCr coatings. In this paper, the formation of HVOF-sprayed tungsten carbide-based cermet coatings is studied through an integrated strategy: First-order process maps are created by using online-diagnostics to assess particle states in relation to process conditions. Coating properties such as hardness, wear resistance, elastic modulus, residual stress, and fracture toughness are discussed with a goal to establish a linkage between properties and particle characteristics via second-order process maps. A strong influence of particle state on the mechanical properties, wear resistance, and residual stress stage of the coating was observed. Within the used processing window (particle temperature ranged from 1687 to 1831 °C and particle velocity from 577 to 621 m/s), the coating hardness varied from 1021 to 1507 HV and modulus from 257 to 322 GPa. The variation in coating mechanical state is suggested to relate to the microstructural changes arising from carbide dissolution, which affects the properties of the matrix and, on the other hand, cohesive properties of the lamella. The complete tracking of the coating particle state and its linking to mechanical properties and residual stresses enables coating design with desired properties.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Thermal Spray Advance Research Team, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Stony Brook University State University of New York, Aalto University
Contributors: Varis, T., Suhonen, T., Ghabchi, A., Valarezo, A., Sampath, S., Liu, X., Hannula, S. P.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 1009-1018
Publication date: 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 23
Issue number: 6
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 3.1 SJR 0.837 SNIP 1.681
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: fracture toughness, HVOF, process map, residual stress, WC-CoCr
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84906056443

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

Fracture Characteristics of High-Velocity Suspension Flame-Sprayed Aluminum Oxide Coatings

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Research group: Materials Characterization, University of Stuttgart
Contributors: Kiilakoski, J., Lutoschkin, A., Plachetta, M., Apostol, M., Koivuluoto, H., Killinger, A., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 466-471
Publication date: 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: International Thermal Spray Conference & Exposition, ITSC 2016
Publisher: DVS Media GmbH
ISBN (Electronic): 978-3-87155-574-9
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Engineering (miscellaneous)
Keywords: ALUMINA COATINGS, HVOF spraying, Thermal spray coating, Bending test, Fracture

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

Fretting-induced friction and wear in large flat-on-flat contact with quenched and tempered steel

Fretting may cause severe surface damage and lead to unexpected fatigue failure. Our test apparatus was designed based on reciprocating, large, annular flat-on-flat contact without any edge effects in the direction of the fretting movement. Fretting wear tests were run with quenched and tempered steel with different normal pressures and sliding amplitudes under gross sliding conditions. The development of the friction coefficient and total wear mass depended mostly on the accumulated sliding distance. Initially, friction and wear were highly adhesive but gradually changed to abrasive due to third body accumulation in the interface.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Research and Development, Wärtsilä Finland
Contributors: Hintikka, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 191-202
Publication date: 2 Jul 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Tribology International
Volume: 92
ISSN (Print): 0301-679X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 4.2 SJR 1.421 SNIP 2.104
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Fretting, Friction, Steel, Wear
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84933509998

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Geometric Structure and Chemical Ordering of Large AuCu Clusters: A Computational Study

Understanding the structure and composition of nanosized gold-copper (AuCu) clusters is crucial for designing an effective AuCu catalyst. Global optimization of AuCu clusters using atomistic force fields is a viable solution for clusters with at least a few nm sizes, because of its fast computation. Here we develop an atomistic many-body potential for AuCu on the basis of the second-moment approximation to the tight-binding model. We show that our potential is in good agreement with density-functional theory calculations, and use it to study the structure and chemical ordering of clusters of sizes up to ∼4 nm by means of global optimization searches. We show that the clusters present a surface enrichment in Au, while subsurface and central sites are enriched in Cu. Surface enrichment in Au and center enrichment in Cu are stronger in icosahedra. Surface Cu atoms prefer terrace sites on (111) facets. Both atomistic and DFT calculations show that L10 and L12 ordered phases are not favorable, even at their ideal compositions for these sizes, because of the tendency of Au to surface segregation. The stability range of icosahedral structures is wider in AuCu nanoalloys than in Au and Cu pure clusters.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Aalto University, Università di Genova
Contributors: Goh, J., Akola, J., Ferrando, R.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 10809-10816
Publication date: 25 May 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 121
Issue number: 20
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 2.135 SNIP 1.133
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Energy(all), Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85016919329

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Global energy consumption due to friction and wear in the mining industry

Calculations on the global energy consumption due to friction and wear in the mineral mining industry are presented. For the first time, the impact of wear is also included in more detailed calculations in order to show its enormous tribological and economic impacts on this industry. A large variety of mining equipment used for the extraction, haulage and beneficiation of underground mining, surface mining and mineral processing were analysed. Coefficients of friction and wear rates of moving mechanical assemblies were estimated based on available information in literature in four general cases: (1) a global average mine in use today, (2) a mine with today's best commercial technology, (3) a mine with today's most advanced technology based upon the adaptation of the latest R&D achievements, and (4) a mine with best futuristic technology forecasted in the next 10 years. The following conclusions were reached: • Total energy consumption of global mining activities, including both mineral and rock mining, is estimated to be 6.2% of the total global energy consumption. About 40% of the consumed energy in mineral mining (equalling to 4.6 EJ annually on global scale) is used for overcoming friction. In addition, 2 EJ is used to remanufacture and replace worn out parts and reserve and stock up spare parts and equipment needed due to wear failures. The largest energy consuming mining actions are grinding (32%), haulage (24%), ventilation (9%) and digging (8%). • Friction and wear is annually resulting in 970 million tonnes of CO2 emissions worldwide in mineral mining (accounting for 2.7% of world CO2 emissions). • The total estimated economic losses resulting from friction and wear in mineral mining are in total 210,000 million Euros annually distributed as 40% for overcoming friction, 27% for production of replacement parts and spare equipment, 26% for maintenance work, and 7% for lost production. • By taking advantage of new technology for friction reduction and wear protection in mineral mining equipment, friction and wear losses could potentially be reduced by 15% in the short term (10 years) and by 30% in the long term (20 years). In the short term this would annually equal worldwide savings of 31,100 million euros, 280 TWh energy consumption and a CO2 emission reduction of 145 million tonnes. In the long term, the annual benefit would be 62,200 million euros, 550 TWh less energy consumption, and a CO2 emission reduction of 290 million tonnes. Potential new remedies to reduce friction and wear in mining include the development and uses of new materials, especially materials with improved strength and hardness properties, more effective surface treatments, high-performance surface coatings, new lubricants and lubricant additives, and new designs of moving parts and surfaces of e.g. liners, blades, plates, shields, shovels, jaws, chambers, tires, seals, bearings, gearboxes, engines, conveyor belts, pumps, fans, hoppers and feeders.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Argonne National Laboratory
Contributors: Holmberg, K., Kivikytö-Reponen, P., Härkisaari, P., Valtonen, K., Erdemir, A.
Number of pages: 24
Pages: 116-139
Publication date: 1 Nov 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Tribology International
Volume: 115
ISSN (Print): 0301-679X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 5.1 SJR 1.52 SNIP 2.059
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Energy, Friction, Mining, Wear
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85019720563

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Guanidinium Pairing Facilitates Membrane Translocation

Ab initio free energy calculations of guanidinium pairing in aqueous solution confirm the counterintuitive conjecture that the like-charge ion pair is thermodynamically stable. Transferring the guanidinium pair to the inside of a POPC lipid bilayer, like-charge ion pairing is found to occur also inside the membrane defect. It is found to contribute to the nonadditivity of ion transfer, thereby facilitating the presence of ions inside the bilayer. The effect is quantified by free energy decomposition and comparison with ammonium ions, which do not form a stable pair. The presence of two charges inside the center of the bilayer leads to the formation of a pore. Potential consequences for cell penetrating peptides and ion conduction are drawn.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Physics, Universität Regensburg, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bijenička Cesta 54
Contributors: Allolio, C., Baxova, K., Vazdar, M., Jungwirth, P.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 143-153
Publication date: 14 Jan 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 120
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 6.1 SJR 1.345 SNIP 1.023
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Bibliographical note

EXT="Vazdar, Mario"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84955271467

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Hafnium oxide thin films as a barrier against copper diffusion in solar absorbers

The thermal stability of copper substrate material used in solar thermal collectors was investigated with and without atomic layer deposited (ALD) hafnium oxide barrier films at temperatures of 200–400 °C. HfO2 films were studied as barriers against thermal diffusion of copper substrate atoms. The ALD HfO2 thin films were deposited in a thermal process at 200 °C using Tetrakis(Dimethylamido)Hafnium(Hf(NMe2)4) and H2O precursors, with 200, 400, and 600 cycles. The Cu substrates with and without HfO2 thin films were aged by means of heat treatment in air. The influence of the HfO2 barriers was determined by optical, microstructural, and morphological analyses before and after the ageing procedures. The optical performance of the HfO2 barriers as a part of solar absorber stack was modelled with CODE Coating Designer. The copper surface without a HfO2 barrier thin film oxidized significantly, which increased thermal emittance and surface roughness. 200 cycles of HfO2 deposition did not result in a completely continuous coating and only provided a little protection against oxidation. Films of 200 and 400 cycles gave continuous coverage and the thickest HfO2 thin film studied, which was deposited from 600 ALD cycles and had a thickness ~50 nm, prevented Cu oxidation and diffusion processes after 2 h heat treatment in air at 300 °C, and retained low thermal emissivity. At 400 °C, diffusion and formation of copper oxide hillocks were observed but the HfO2 thin film significantly retarded the degradation when compared to a Cu substrate without and with thinner barrier layers.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, R&D Center for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modifications (CEPLANT), Masaryk University
Contributors: Kotilainen, M., Krumpolec, R., Franta, D., Souček, P., Homola, T., Cameron, D. C., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 140-146
Publication date: 1 Jul 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume: 166
ISSN (Print): 0927-0248
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 9.2 SJR 1.459 SNIP 1.537
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Copper diffusion, Diffusion barrier, HfO thin film, Solar absorber, Thermal ageing
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85016025672

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Hematite Surface Modification toward Efficient Sunlight-Driven Water Splitting Activity: The Role of Gold Nanoparticle Addition

Localized surface plasmon resonance has been investigated to enhance light harvesting in hematite-based photoelectrodes modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); meanwhile, an extensive understanding about the different processes involved in the hematite-AuNP system remains unclear. This work addresses a majority of effects associated with AuNP addition by comparing charge transfer, catalytic and light harvesting efficiencies. The obtained results revealed that the lower AuNP amount leads to a higher photocurrent response of 1.20 mA cm-2 at 1.23 VRHE in comparison with all photoelectrodes designed here. X-ray photoelectron data revealed that hematite photoelectrodes loaded with higher concentrations of AuNPs immersed in an alkaline electrolyte showed hydrated/oxidized gold phase formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface. This change on the semiconductor-metal interface may affect the conductivity impairing the photocatalytic performance because of the passivation layer on the AuNP surface, decreasing the efficiency of charge transfer. Notoriously, increasing AuNP amount supported on the hematite surface clearly promoted higher light absorption, which was surprisingly not followed by photoelectrochemical efficiency. This result suggests here that the plasmon effect is not a dominant phenomenon that drives the photoelectrode performance. In fact, a deeper analysis showed that the loaded hematite photoelectrodes with low amounts of AuNPs provides a Schottky contact at the semiconductor-metal interface leading to Fermi level equilibration enhancing charge transport efficiency, which is classified as the predominant effect leading to higher photoresponse in the system.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Universidade Federal do ABC, Microscopy Centre
Contributors: Tofanello, A., Freitas, A. L., Carvalho, W. M., Salminen, T., Niemi, T., Souza, F. L.
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Energy(all), Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85082009064

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

High temperature corrosion of thermally sprayed NiCr and FeCr coatings covered with a KCl-K2SO4 salt mixture

Current boiler tube materials and designs are sensitive to changes in process conditions. The desire to increase efficiency through the increase in process temperature and the use of high-chlorine and alkali containing fuels such as biomass is challenging. The alloying of steel to increase the corrosion resistance leads to a significant increase in cost. Thermally sprayed coatings offer promising, effective, flexible and cost efficient solution to fulfil the material needs for the future. However, some heat exchanger design alterations have to be overcome before global commercialization. High temperature corrosion in combustion plants can occur by a variety of mechanisms, including passive scale degradation with subsequent rapid scaling, loss of adhesion and scale detachment, attack by molten or partly molten deposits via fluxing reactions and intergranular/interlamellar corrosion. The activated chlorine corrosion mechanism plays a key role in the thermally sprayed coatings due to their unique lamellar structure.In this study, the corrosion behaviour of NiCr and FeCr (HVOF and wire arc) thermally sprayed coatings was tested under simplified biomass combustion conditions. The tests were carried out by using a KCl-K2SO4 salt mixture as a synthetic biomass ash, which was placed on the coated materials and then heat treated for one week (168h) at two different temperatures (550°C and 600°C) and in two different gas atmospheres (air and air+30% H2O). After exposure, the metallographic cross sections of the coatings were studied with SEM/EDX. The results showed that the coatings behaved relatively well at the lower test temperature while critical interlamellar corrosion was observed in some cases at the higher test temperature. A few coatings (HVOF Ni49Cr, HVOF Ni21Cr, and wire arc sprayed Fe30Cr) showed promising performance even at 600°C in both atmospheres (dry and wet).

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Abo Akad Univ, Abo Akademi University, Dept Phys
Contributors: Varis, T., Bankiewicz, D., Yrjas, P., Oksa, M., Suhonen, T., Tuurna, S., Ruusuvuori, K., Holmström, S.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 235-243
Publication date: 15 Mar 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 265
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3.9 SJR 0.852 SNIP 1.376
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Biomass, Corrosion protection, High temperature corrosion, HVOF, Thermal spray coating, Wire arc
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84925343339

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

How conformational flexibility stabilizes the hyperthermophilic elongation factor G-domain

Proteins from thermophilic organisms are stable and functional well above ambient temperature. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying such a resistance is of crucial interest for many technological applications. For some time, thermal stability has been assumed to correlate with high mechanical rigidity of the protein matrix. In this work we address this common belief by carefully studying a pair of homologous G-domain proteins, with their melting temperatures differing by 40 K. To probe the thermal-stability content of the two proteins we use extensive simulations covering the microsecond time range and employ several different indicators to assess the salient features of the conformational landscape and the role of internal fluctuations at ambient condition. At the atomistic level, while the magnitude of fluctuations is comparable, the distribution of flexible and rigid stretches of amino-acids is more regular in the thermophilic protein causing a cage-like correlation of amplitudes along the sequence. This caging effect is suggested to favor stability at high T by confining the mechanical excitations. Moreover, it is found that the thermophilic protein, when folded, visits a higher number of conformational substates than the mesophilic homologue. The entropy associated with the occupation of the different substates and the thermal resilience of the protein intrinsic compressibility provide a qualitative insight on the thermal stability of the thermophilic protein as compared to its mesophilic homologue. Our findings potentially open the route to new strategies in the design of thermostable proteins.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Multi-scaled biodata analysis and modelling (MultiBAM), Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, Université Paris Diderot, Centro S3
Contributors: Kalimeri, M., Rahaman, O., Melchionna, S., Sterpone, F.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 13775-13785
Publication date: 7 Nov 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 117
Issue number: 44
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 6.3 SJR 1.504 SNIP 1.195
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Bibliographical note

EXT="Kalimeri, Maria"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84887752230

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

How well can we predict cluster fragmentation inside a mass spectrometer?

Fragmentation of molecular clusters inside mass spectrometers is a significant source of uncertainty in a wide range of chemical applications. We have measured the fragmentation of sulfuric acid clusters driving atmospheric new-particle formation, and developed a novel model, based on first principles calculations, capable of quantitatively predicting the extent of fragmentation.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: University of Helsinki, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Universite de Bordeaux - PRES, Lab Bordelais Rech Informat, PICTURA Res Grp, UMR 5800
Contributors: Passananti, M., Zapadinsky, E., Zanca, T., Kangasluoma, J., Myllys, N., Rissanen, M. P., Kurtén, T., Ehn, M., Attoui, M., Vehkamäki, H.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 5946-5949
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Chemical Communications
Volume: 55
Issue number: 42
ISSN (Print): 1359-7345
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 9.8 SJR 1.992 SNIP 1.144
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Catalysis, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Ceramics and Composites, Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85065980333

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

HVOF- and HVAF-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings Deposited from Feedstock Powders of Spherical Morphology: Microstructure Formation and High-Stress Abrasive Wear Resistance Up to 800 °C

Chromium carbide-based coatings are commonly applied to protect surfaces against wear at high temperatures. This work discusses the influence of feedstock powder and spray torch selection on the microstructure and high-stress abrasion resistance of thermally sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coatings. Four commercial feedstock powders with spherical morphology and different microstructures were deposited by different high-velocity spray processes, namely third-generation gas- and liquid-fueled HVOF torches and by the latest generation HVAF torch. The microstructures of the coatings were studied in the as-sprayed state and after various heat treatments. The high-stress abrasion resistance of as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings was tested at room temperature and at 800 °C. The study reveals that the selection of the spray torch mainly affects the room temperature abrasion resistance of the as-sprayed coatings, which is due to differences in the embrittlement of the binder phase generated by carbide dissolution. At elevated temperatures, precipitation and growth of secondary carbides yields a fast equalization of the various coatings microstructures and wear properties.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2/C, Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik, Fraunhofer Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme
Contributors: Janka, L., Norpoth, J., Trache, R., Thiele, S., Berger, L. M.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 1720–1731
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 26
Issue number: 7
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 3.3 SJR 0.688 SNIP 1.209
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: abrasion resistance, chromium carbide, feedstock powder, heat treatment, HVAF, HVOF
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85027972309

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

HVOF process control enabling strategies

Complexity in dynamics and mechanism of supersonic flame formation and effects of processing variables has made the understanding of interaction of particles and flame a difficult task. Lack of such understanding limits the possibilities of controlling the process to obtain desired in-flight particles temperature and velocity and consequent particles state. This problem is even more pronounced in TS systems with no dedicated decoupled temperature and velocity controlled regime. Different approaches based on total volume flow, back pressure and fuel to oxygen ratio have been examined to address the robustness of each approach to control the temperature and velocity. WC-CoCr material was used employing DJ-2600 torch. A guideline to control the in-flight particles temperature and velocity based on process variables is provided. A process map was developed to establish a correlation between process, in-flight particles state, microstructure, properties and performance.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Thermal Spray Advance Research Team, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Center for Thermal Spray Research
Contributors: Ghabchi, A., Varis, T., Holmberg, K., Sampath, S.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 465-471
Publication date: 2012

Host publication information

Title of host publication: International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition, ITSC 2012 - Air, Land, Water and the Human Body: Thermal Spray Science and Applications
Publisher: ASM International
ISBN (Print): 9781632666796
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84907084172

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Hydration of hydroxyl and amino groups examined by molecular dynamics and neutron scattering

Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution was performed on aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol and isopropylamine. The difference between these two measurements primarily contains information about the different hydration of the alcohol and amino group. This data is used as a test of the accuracy of molecular dynamic simulations of the same systems. Having established the level of accuracy of the modeling, it is employed as an interpretive tool for the experimental data. Even though the alcohol and the amine possess comparable hydrogen bonding capabilities, consisting respectively of either two hydrogen bond acceptors and one donor, or two hydrogen bond donors and one acceptor, we find significant differences in the hydration of the hydroxyl and amino groups.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institut Laue-Langevin
Contributors: Hladílková, J., Fischer, H. E., Jungwirth, P., Mason, P. E.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 6357-6365
Publication date: 28 May 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 119
Issue number: 21
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.335 SNIP 1.058
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84930682015

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Impact wear and mechanical behavior of steels at subzero temperatures

In this study, the deformation behavior of three steels was studied at Arctic temperatures by controlled single and multiple oblique angle impacts. The results were compared with the mechanical properties of the steels determined at the corresponding temperatures. At subzero temperatures, the hardness and strength of the studied steels increased and their ability to deform plastically steadily decreased. In the martensitic steels, adiabatic shear bands were observed to form during the impacts at subzero temperatures, indicating that the deformation ability of the steels was critically impaired. At −60 °C, the adiabatic shear bands commonly acted as initiation sites for subsurface cracks. Moreover, the surface characterization of the test samples revealed formation of cracks and wear particles, which was connected to the opening of grain boundaries and martensite laths at low temperatures. Finite Element Modeling was also used to obtain more information about the impact event.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization, University of Nottingham
Contributors: Valtonen, K., Ratia, V., Ramakrishnan, K. R., Apostol, M., Terva, J., Kuokkala, V.
Number of pages: 18
Pages: 476-493
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 17 Aug 2018

Publication information

Journal: Tribology International
Volume: 129
ISSN (Print): 0301-679X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.536 SNIP 2.373
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Impact, Low temperature, Steel, Wear
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85053014382

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Improved corrosion properties of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel by nanomolecular silane layers as hybrid interface between zinc and top coatings

Thin organic coatings (TOC) or paints on hot dip galvanized steel (HDGS) improve the corrosion properties and create visually pleasing surfaces. Delamination of these coatings lead to corrosion and peeling of the paints. Hence, a novel method for improved adhesion and corrosion properties for HDGS surfaces is introduced. It is shown how the fabrication of a nanomolecular silane film as an interfacial layer between the HDGS and TOC or paint improves the corrosion properties of HDGS in different pH regimes. Understanding the corrosion behavior of ultra-thin silane layers under differing pH is crucial as subsequent coatings have different pHs. By varying the silanization parameters two different nanomolecular surface structures of aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) on HDGS were fabricated: well-ordered monolayers with approximately 1 nm thickness and highly clustered APS films with a thickness in the range of 5 ̶8 nm. To verify the nanomolecular APS structures, photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and contact angle (CA) measurements were employed. The corrosion properties of HDGS and silanized HDGS were studied with linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It is shown that at pH 5 and 7 passivation behavior is observed on silanized samples but the most significant improvement in corrosion resistance is found at pH 10 where the corrosion currents of silanized samples are up to two orders of magnitude lower than on uncoated metallic samples. Also, it is demonstrated that the corrosion inhibition of APS is not only dependent on the thickness of the silane film, but also the molecular ordering at the surface. The thin, well-ordered APS monolayer is more resistant towards corrosion in NaCl solution (pH 7) than thicker clustered APS layer. This indicates that the highly ordered nanomolecular surface structure protects the HDGS-silane interface
from the Cl- adsorption better than the thicker, but more randomly ordered APS layers. Nanomolecular interfacial silane films for enhanced corrosion and adhesion properties on HDGS are transferrable to industrial production lines providing a low cost and environmentally friendly method for improved HDGS products.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Optoelectronics Research Centre, Research group: Surface Science, MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University
Contributors: Vuori, L., Ali-Löytty, H., Lahtonen, K., Hannula, M., Lehtonen, E., Niu, Y., Valden, M.
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Corrosion
Volume: 73
Issue number: 2
ISSN (Print): 0010-9312
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 4.2 SJR 0.955 SNIP 1.465
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Electrochemistry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Improved properties for packaging materials by nanoscale surface modification and ALD barrier coating

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Paper Converting and Packaging, Metsä Board, Bemis, LUT Energy, Masaryk University
Contributors: Lahti, J., Lavonen, J., Lahtinen, K., Johansson, P., Seppänen, T., Cameron, D. C.
Number of pages: 23
Pages: 684-706
Publication date: 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2016
Volume: 2
Publisher: TAPPI Press
ISBN (Electronic): 9781510828001
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Biotechnology, Biomaterials, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84992694476

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Improvement of actuation performance of dielectric elastomers by barium titanate and carbon black fillers

Dielectric elastomers are promising materials for actuators resembling human muscle. Among elastomers, acrylic rubbers (ACM) have shown good actuation performance but its use is limited by the high operating voltages required. The present work demonstrates that simultaneous incorporation of nanostructured carbon black and dielectric fillers offers an increase in a dielectric permittivity and a suitable modulus of the elastomers matrix, enabling an improved electro-mechanical actuation performance at low voltages. By the use of reinforcing carbon black and barium titanate in an acrylic elastomer matrix a sixfold increase in the dielectric permittivity was realized. A fine tuning of the actuation stress and, consequently, actuation strain can be done by a judicial selection of the different filler concentrations in the soft rubber matrix. Finally, a synergistic effect of the fillers was observed in the improved actuation performance of the developed materials. This work may pave the way to design dielectric elastomers for actuator fabrication.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden E.V.
Contributors: Poikelispää, M., Shakun, A., Das, A., Vuorinen, J.
Publication date: 10 Nov 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume: 133
Issue number: 42
Article number: 44116
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 3.9 SJR 0.588 SNIP 0.815
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Polymers and Plastics, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: actuators, dielectric properties, elastomers
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84982792344

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Improving the high temperature abrasion resistance of thermally sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coatings by WC addition

Two experimental agglomerated and sintered (a&s) feedstock powders were prepared, in order to reveal the role of WC addition on the microstructure, hardness, and the abrasion resistance of HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coatings. These powders contained 10 wt.% of sub-micron WC, 20 or 10 wt.% of nickel binder, and Cr3C2 as balance. Experimental coatings were deposited by a liquid fueled high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spray process and subsequently heat treated at 800 °C for 8 h to simulate elevated temperature service conditions. The microstructures of the powders and coatings were studied by SEM and X-ray diffraction, and the hardnesses of coatings were probed by means of micro and nanoindentation. In addition, the high stress abrasion resistance was tested in a temperature range from room temperature up to 800 °C. The microstructural characterization of the coatings displayed the presence of WC and tungsten containing Cr3C2 grains. The coating hardness increased after heat treatment, which stemmed from precipitation of secondary carbides and solid solution strengthening of the binder by tungsten. In addition, the study revealed that both experimental coatings have high wear resistance at room and elevated temperatures.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2/C, Fraunhofer Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme, Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik, Treibacher Industrie AG
Contributors: Janka, L., Berger, L. M., Norpoth, J., Trache, R., Thiele, S., Tomastik, C., Matikainen, V., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 296-305
Publication date: 15 Mar 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 337
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 5.2 SJR 0.973 SNIP 1.494
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Abrasive wear, CrC-NiCr, Hardmetal, High temperature, Thermal spray, WC
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85041378943

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Increased lifetime for biomass and waste to energy power plant boilers with HVOF coatings: High temperature corrosion testing under chlorine-containing molten salt

Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Oksa, M., Tuurna, S., Varis, T.
Number of pages: 14
Pages: 783-796
Publication date: Jun 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 22
Issue number: 5
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 3 SJR 0.933 SNIP 1.366
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: biofuel, CJS, coating characteristics, corrosion protection coating, high temperature corrosion, HVOF, molten salt, process optimization, waste to energy
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84878627004

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

Influence of As/group-III flux ratio on defects formation and photovoltaic performance of GaInNAs solar cells

The correlation between the As to group III flux ratio and photovoltaic performance of GaIn0.1N0.03As solar cells fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is systematically investigated. The results show that flux ratio has a remarkable influence on the formation of defect traps. Furthermore, the formation of defects at different flux ratios is correlating with the variation of the background doping level and the photovoltaic performance. In particular, this study reveals a linear dependency between current generation, dark saturation current, defect densities, photoluminescence peak intensity and the flux ratio. A significant increase in solar cell performance, exhibiting maximum external quantum efficiency of 90%, is obtained when As/group-III ratio is decreased close to the stoichiometric limit. For optimized growth condition, the 1 eV GaIn0.1N0.03As solar cell exhibits a short circuit current density as high as 17.9 mA/cm2 calculated from the external quantum efficiency data (AM0 conditions) with 870 nm high-pass filter. This value reflects the potential of the GaInNAs cell for current matching and power generation in high efficiency solar cells incorporating three- or four- junctions.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Optoelectronics Research Centre, Research group: Semiconductor Technology and Applications
Contributors: Polojärvi, V., Aho, A., Tukiainen, A., Raappana, M., Aho, T., Schramm, A., Guina, M.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 213-220
Publication date: 1 May 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume: 149
ISSN (Print): 0927-0248
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 8.8 SJR 1.599 SNIP 1.697
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Defects, Dilute nitrides, III-V semiconductors, Material characterization, Molecular beam epitaxy, Multijunction solar cells
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84957536411

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Influence of heat treatment on the abrasive wear resistance of a Cr3C2NiCr coating deposited by an ethene-fuelled HVOF spray process

This work reveals the influence of heat treatments on the microstructure, mechanical properties and abrasive wear behaviour of a Cr3C2NiCr coating deposited by an ethene-fuelled high-velocity oxygen-fuel spray process using an agglomerated-and-sintered feedstock powder. The wear resistance of an as-sprayed and heat treated (8 h at 800 °C) coating was evaluated in low- and high-stress abrasion regimes, the latter in a temperature range up to 800 °C. Precipitation of secondary carbides from the supersaturated as-sprayed binder matrix is at the core of the observed changes in the coatings wear resistance upon heat treating. This aging process renders the binder matrix softer and more ductile, as was probed by means of nanoindentation, and thereby improves its resistance against micro-cracking which is identified as an important wear mechanism in high-stress abrasion conditions.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, AC2T Research GmbH, Fraunhofer Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik, Fraunhofer Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme
Contributors: Janka, L., Norpoth, J., Trache, R., Berger, L. M.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 444-451
Publication date: 15 Apr 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 291
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 0.882 SNIP 1.385
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Abrasion, CrC, Heat treatment, HVOF, Mechanical properties
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84960192258

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Influence of powder properties on residual stresses formed in high-pressure liquid fuel HVOF sprayed WC-CoCr coatings

This paper presents a systematic study of the effect of various WC-CoCr powders on the residual stresses of the high pressure HVOF sprayed coating. As the residual stresses are recognized to play a significant role in the mechanical and fatigue resistance of the coating, it is understandable that their management is important for damage tolerant coating design. Several studies have recently shown that processes, which produce high particle kinetic energy and lower particle temperature, such as Warm spray, HVAF and high-pressure HVOF processes, generate higher peening stresses and therefore final residual stresses is more compressive compared to lower kinetic energy HVOF systems. In addition to the spraying process, powder properties are known to be one of the most important variables in thermal spraying. Nevertheless, only few studies can be found on the effect of powder properties on residual stresses. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of different powder properties on the formation of residual stress. In situ monitoring was utilized to record curvature and temperature during spraying and to calculate coating residual stresses. This approach is a useful tool for understanding of residual stresses during the thermal spraying process enabling their manipulation. It was found that the powders, with only minor differences in density and particle size, produced a significant difference of about 350 MPa in the stress states of the coatings. The combined effect of spray powder properties and spray parameters on residual stress was almost 560 MPa.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Surface Engineering, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Varis, T., Suhonen, T., Jokipii, M., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 9
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 388
Article number: 125604
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Agglomerated powder, Apparent density, High pressure HVOF, Residual stress, Thermal spraying, WC-CoCr
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85081673256

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Influence of temperature-induced copper diffusion on degradation of selective chromium oxy-nitride solar absorber coatings

Temperature-induced copper diffusion process and its influences on optical degradation and long-term stability of solar absorber coatings on copper substrates were investigated at intermediate temperatures of 248-500. °C. The studied absorbers were sputtered chromium oxy-nitride absorbers having tin oxide anti-reflection coatings. The absorbers were aged by means of thermal accelerated ageing studies and short-period heat treatments up to 500. °C for two hours.Ageing mechanisms and degradation of the absorbers were analysed before and after the ageing studies by optical measurements (solar absorptance with a UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer and thermal emittance by FTIR spectrophotometry), microstructural analysis using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an EDS, composition by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and adhesion by tensile test. The relation between optical degradation and diffusion mechanisms was studied using optical modelling and simulation. The results clearly revealed the mechanism of outward copper diffusion: diffusion of copper substrate atoms into the coating and through the coating to the surface, formation of copper oxide islands on the surface of the coating, and formation of voids in the substrate surface. The relation between the diffusion mechanisms and increase in thermal emittance of the absorber surface was demonstrated.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Research group: Materials Characterization, University of Helsinki
Contributors: Kotilainen, M., Honkanen, M., Mizohata, K., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 323-332
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume: 145
ISSN (Print): 0927-0248
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 8.8 SJR 1.599 SNIP 1.697
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Coating, Copper, Diffusion mechanisms, Solar absorber, Thermal diffusion, Void growth
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84949090386

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Influence of the phosphate glass melt on the corrosion of functional particles occurring during the preparation of glass-ceramics

We report our findings on the impact of the glass composition on the corrosion of microparticles occurring during the preparation of glass-ceramics using the direct doping method. Microparticles (MPs) with the composition Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+,Dy3+ with blue-green persistent luminescence were chosen as the changes in their spectroscopic properties can be related to the MPs’ corrosion. The MPs were added in phosphate-based glasses with different compositions. When using the same doping parameters, the glass system with the composition 90NaPO3-10Na2O (mol%) was found to be the least corrosive on the MPs whereas the glass system with the composition 90NaPO3-10NaF (mol%) is the most corrosive on the MPs probably due to their different viscosity at 575 °C, the temperature at which the MPs are added in the glass melts.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Photonics, Research group: Nanophotonics, Turun Yliopisto/Turun Biomateriaalikeskus, Laboratory of Photonics
Contributors: Ojha, N., Laihinen, T., Salminen, T., Lastusaari, M., Petit, L.
Pages: 11807-11811
Publication date: Jun 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 1 Jan 2018

Publication information

Journal: Ceramics International
Volume: 44
Issue number: 10
ISSN (Print): 0272-8842
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 5.2 SJR 0.888 SNIP 1.297
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Ceramics and Composites, Process Chemistry and Technology, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Corrosion, Direct doping method, Glass melt, Phosphate glass-ceramics, SrAlO:Eu, Dy microparticles
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85044921933

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Influence of the Spray Gun Type on Microstructure and Properties of HVAF Sprayed Fe-Based Corrosion Resistant Coatings

The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructural details and corrosion properties of novel Fe-based coatings prepared using two different generations of HVAF spray guns. These two generations of HVAF guns are Activated Combustion HVAF (AC-HVAF, 2nd generation) M2 gun and Supersonic Air Fuel HVAF (SAF, 3rd generation) M3 gun. Structural details were analysed using x-ray diffractometry and field-emission scanning electron microscope. Higher denseness with homogeneous microstructure was achieved for Fe-based coating deposited by the M3 process. Such coatings exhibit higher particle deformation and lower oxide content compared to coatings manufactured with M2 gun. Corrosion properties were studied by open-cell potential measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The lower porosity and higher interlamellar cohesion of coating manufactured with M3 gun prevent the electrolyte from penetrating through the coating and arriving to the substrate, enhancing the overall corrosion resistance. This can be explained by the improved microstructures and coating performance.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS)
Contributors: Milanti, A., Koivuluoto, H., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 1312-1322
Publication date: 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 24
Issue number: 7
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 3 SJR 0.735 SNIP 0.989
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: corrosion behavior, Fe-based coatings, HVAF, structure
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84944279959

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Infrared Thermography as a Non-destructive Testing Solution for Thermal Spray Metal Coatings

In this work, an infrared (IR) thermographic procedure was evaluated as a non-destructive testing tool to detect damage in thermal spray metallic coatings. As model systems, polished HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed Fe-based layers deposited onto steel plates were employed. Damage by external-object impingement was simulated through a cyclic impact-test apparatus, which induced circumferential and radial cracks across all model systems, and interface cracks of different sizes in distinct samples. Damaged and undamaged plates were bulk-heated to above 100 °C using an IR lamp; their free-convection cooling was then recorded by an IR thermocamera. The intentionally induced defects were hardly detectable in IR thermograms, due to IR reflection and artificial “hot” spots induced by residuals of transfer material from the impacting counterbody. As a micrometer-thin layer of black paint was applied, surface emissivity got homogenized and any artifacts were effectively suppressed, so that failed coating areas clearly showed up as “cold spots.” This effect was more apparent when large interface cracks occurred. Finite-element modeling proved the physical significance of the IR-thermography approach, showing that failed coating areas are cooled by surrounding air faster than they are heated by conduction from the hot substrate, which is due to the insulating effect of cracks.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
Contributors: Santangelo, P. E., Allesina, G., Bolelli, G., Lusvarghi, L., Matikainen, V., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 1982–1993
Publication date: Dec 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 15 Sep 2017

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 26
Issue number: 8
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 3.3 SJR 0.688 SNIP 1.209
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: finite element modeling, high-velocity air fuel (HVAF), high-velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), impact testing, non-destructive inspection
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85029487592

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Interfacial design and structure of protein/polymer films on oxidized AlGaN surfaces

Protein detection using biologically or immunologically modified field-effect transistors (bio/immunoFETs) depends on the nanoscale structure of the polymer/protein film at sensor interfaces (Bhushan 2010 Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology 3rd edn (Heidelberg: Springer); Gupta et al 2010 The effect of interface modification on bioFET sensitivity, submitted). AlGaN-based HFETs (heterojunction FETs) are attractive platforms for many protein sensing applications due to their electrical stability in high osmolarity aqueous environments and favourable current drive capabilities. However, interfacial polymer/protein films on AlGaN, though critical to HFET protein sensor function, have not yet been fully characterized. These interfacial films are typically comprised of protein-polymer films, in which analyte-specific receptors are tethered to the sensing surface with a heterobifunctional linker molecule (often a silane molecule). Here we provide insight into the structure and tribology of silane interfaces composed of one of two different silane monomers deposited on oxidized AlGaN, and other metal oxide surfaces. We demonstrate distinct morphologies and wear properties for the interfacial films, attributable to the specific chemistries of the silane monomers used in the films. For each specific silane monomer, film morphologies and wear are broadly consistent on multiple oxide surfaces. Differences in interfacial film morphology also drive improvements in sensitivity of the underlying HFET (coincident with, though not necessarily caused by, differences in interfacial film thickness). We present a testable model of the hypothetical differential interfacial depth distribution of protein analytes on FET sensor interfaces with distinct morphologies. Empirical validation of this model may rationalize the actual behaviour of planar immunoFETs, which has been shown to be contrary to expectations of bio/immunoFET behaviour prevalent in the literature for the last 20 years. Improved interfacial properties of bio/immunoHFETs have improved bio/immunoHFET performance: better understanding of interfaces may lead to mechanistic understanding of FET sensor properties and to clinical translation of the immunoFET platform.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Augmented Human Activities (AHA), Ohio State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Contributors: Gupta, S. K., Wu, H. H., Kwak, K. J., Casal, P., Nicholson, T. R., Wen, X., Anisha, R., Bhushan, B., Berger, P. R., Lu, W., Brillson, L. J., Lee, S. C.
Publication date: 26 Jan 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 44
Issue number: 3
Article number: 34010
ISSN (Print): 0022-3727
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 1.266 SNIP 1.424
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 78650639127

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Investigation of long-term chemical stability of structured ZnO films in aqueous solutions of varying conditions

Nanostructured zinc oxide, ZnO, films feature attractive functional properties, but their long-term stability needs further investigation. Here, ZnO thin films with well-aligned rod-like structure were grown on stainless steel substrate. The long-term chemical stability of the ZnO films was investigated in solutions with varying pH values (3 − 11) to enhance knowledge about the durability of films in acidic and basic environments. The solubility and stability of the films in the solutions were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses, as well as by monitoring changes in water contact angle of the films and in the pH values of the solutions. The ZnO film was found to be most stable at highest pH value, with the amount of dissolved zinc being lowest among the studied pH values and the changes observed with other characterization methods being minor compared to the samples immersed to other solutions. At the lowest pH, the film was removed rapidly from the substrate by dissolution. In solutions featuring pH values 5 and 9, the measured pH was unstable and changed constantly until it reached the value 7.2–7.6, i.e., until the equilibrium of different chemical species in the solution was achieved. These results are presented and discussed in this paper from the viewpoint of applicability of the ZnO films.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Ceramic materials, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Heinonen, S., Nikkanen, J., Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., Levänen, E.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 410-419
Publication date: 30 Sep 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Thin Solid Films
Volume: 638
ISSN (Print): 0040-6090
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 3.8 SJR 0.617 SNIP 0.864
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Chemical stability, Hydrothermal synthesis, pH, Solubility, Thin film, Zinc oxide
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85027885831

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Ionization of purine tautomers in nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides: From the gas phase to the aqueous environment

We have simulated ionization of purine nucleic acid components in the gas phase and in a water environment. The vertical and adiabatic ionization processes were calculated at the PMP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level with the TDDFT method applied to obtain ionization from the deeper lying orbitals. The water environment was modeled via microsolvation approach and using a nonequilibrium polarizable continuum model. We have characterized a set of guanine tautomers and investigated nucleosides and nucleotides in different conformations. The results for guanine, i.e., the nucleic acid base with the lowest vertical ionization potential, were also compared to those for the other purine base, adenine. The main findings of our study are the following: (i) Guanine remains clearly the base with the lowest ionization energy even upon aqueous solvation. (ii) Water solvent has a strong effect on the ionization energetics of guanine and adenine and their derivatives; the vertical ionization potential (VIP) is lowered by about 1 eV for guanine while it is ∼1.5 eV higher in the nucleotides, overall resulting in similar VIPs for GMP-, guanosine and guanine in water. (iii) Water efficiently screens the electrostatic interactions between nucleic acid components. Consequently, ionization in water always originates from the base unit of the nucleic acid and all the information about conformational state is lost in the ionization energetics. (iv) The energy splitting between ionization of the two least bound electrons increases upon solvation. (v) Tautomerism does not contribute to the width of the photoelectron spectra in water. (vi) The effect of specific short-range interactions with individual solvent molecules is negligible for purine bases, compared to the long-range dielectric effects of the aqueous medium.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, University of Southern California
Contributors: Pluhařová, E., Jungwirth, P., Bradforth, S. E., Slavíček, P.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 1294-1305
Publication date: 10 Feb 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 115
Issue number: 5
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 6.3 SJR 1.801 SNIP 1.213
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79952844542

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Irradiation promoted exchange reaction with disulfide substituents

Exchange reaction between the primary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold and potential molecular substituents capable of forming a SAM on the same substrate can be promoted by electron irradiation. Here we demonstrate that such a promoted reaction can be performed not only with thiols but with disulfides as substituents as well. This extends significantly the assortments of the suitable compounds, resulting in a broader variety of mixed SAMs and chemical patterns which can be fabricated by this technique. The kinetics of the promoted exchange reaction was studied in detail. The feasibility and practical usefulness of the approach were demonstrated by the experiments with a disulfide substituent bearing a tail group which can serve as an initiator for surface-initiated polymerization. A variety of complex polymer brush patterns was prepared using several representative polymers, relevant for biomedical research and applications, as test systems.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Integrated Technologies for Tissue Engineering Research (ITTE), Universitat Heidelberg
Contributors: Khan, M. N., Zharnikov, M.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 14534-14543
Publication date: 18 Jul 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 117
Issue number: 28
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 8.3 SJR 2.143 SNIP 1.432
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84880559790

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Light-trapping enhanced thin-film III-V quantum dot solar cells fabricated by epitaxial lift-off

We report thin-film InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with n-i-p+ deep junction structure and planar back reflector fabricated by epitaxial lift-off (ELO) of full 3-in wafers. External quantum efficiency measurements demonstrate twofold enhancement of the QD photocurrent in the ELO QD cell compared to the wafer-based QD cell. In the GaAs wavelength range, the ELO QD cell perfectly preserves the current collection efficiency of the baseline single-junction ELO cell. We demonstrate by full-wave optical simulations that integrating a micro-patterned diffraction grating in the ELO cell rearside provides more than tenfold enhancement of the near-infrared light harvesting by QDs. Experimental results are thoroughly discussed with the help of physics-based simulations to single out the impact of QD dynamics and defects on the cell photovoltaic behavior. It is demonstrated that non radiative recombination in the QD stack is the bottleneck for the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the reported devices. More important, our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the Voc offset of 0.3. V from the QD ground state identified by Tanabe et al., 2012, from a collection of experimental data of high quality III-V QD solar cells is a reliable - albeit conservative - metric to gauge the attainable Voc and to quantify the scope for improvement by reducing non radiative recombination. Provided that material quality issues are solved, we demonstrate - by transport and rigorous electromagnetic simulations - that light-trapping enhanced thin-film cells with twenty InAs/GaAs QD layers reach efficiency higher than 28% under unconcentrated light, ambient temperature. If photon recycling can be fully exploited, 30% efficiency is deemed to be feasible.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Photonics, Research group: ORC, Research group: Nanophotonics, Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Health Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, tf2 devices B.V.
Contributors: Cappelluti, F., Kim, D., van Eerden, M., Cédola, A. P., Aho, T., Bissels, G., Elsehrawy, F., Wu, J., Liu, H., Mulder, P., Bauhuis, G., Schermer, J., Niemi, T., Guina, M.
Pages: 83-92
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume: 181
ISSN (Print): 0927-0248
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 10.2 SJR 1.62 SNIP 1.681
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Epitaxial lift-off, Light-trapping, Quantum dot, Solar cell, Thin-film
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85039853836

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Load capacity of lubricated bismuth bronze bimetal bearing under elliptical sliding motion

Leaded tin bronze alloys are widely used in heavy machinery bearings operating in boundary and mixed lubrication regions due to the excellent dry lubrication properties of lead. However, restrictions on the use of lead have created an increasing demand for lead-free or low-lead bearing materials. In the present study, suitability of a novel bismuth bronze bimetal material for possible substitution of leaded tin bronze was studied with a special thrust bearing test device, which simulates the contact conditions in the main thrust bearing of mineral crushers. The oil-lubricated test bearings have a flat-on-flat type contact with oil grooves and a constant eccentric motion against a case hardened steel counter plate under a periodically increased axial pressure. The test was continued until a sudden rise in friction, which indicates bearing failure and risk of an imminent seizure. The bismuth bronze showed a load capacity of the same level with the reference material, continuously cast CuSn10Pb10. Characterization by electron microscopy showed that the dry-lubricating bismuth precipitations had a fine grain size and an even distribution, which explains the good load carrying capacity. It was concluded that the bismuth bronze has potential for substituting the leaded tin bronzes in the studied operating conditions.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Metso Minerals, Inc.
Contributors: Oksanen, V. T., Lehtovaara, A. J., Kallio, M. H.
Pages: 72-80
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 4 May 2017

Publication information

Journal: Wear
Volume: 388-389
ISSN (Print): 0043-1648
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 1.386 SNIP 2.227
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Bearings, Bimetals, Lead substitution, Non-ferrous metals, Solid lubricants
Electronic versions: 
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85019077732

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Long-Range Observation of Exciplex Formation and Decay Mediated by One-Dimensional Bridges

We report herein unprecedented long-range observation of both formation and decay of the exciplex state in donor (D)-bridge (B)-acceptor (A) linked systems. Zinc porphyrins (ZnP) as a donor were tethered to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) as an acceptor through oligo(p-phenylene)s (ZnP-phn-SWNT) or oligo(p-xylene)s (ZnP-xyn-1-ph1-SWNT) with systematically varied lengths (n = 1-5) to address the issue. Exponential dependencies of rate constants for the exciplex formation (kFEX) and decay (kDEX) on the edge-to-edge separation distance between ZnP and SWNT through the bridges were unambiguously derived from time-resolved spectroscopies. Distance dependencies (i.e., attenuation factor, β) of kFEX and kDEX in ZnP-phn-SWNT were found to be considerably small (β = 0.10 for kFEX and 0.12 Å-1 for kDEX) compared to those for charge separation and recombination (0.2-0.8 Å-1) in D-B-A systems with the same oligo(p-phenylene) bridges. The small β values may be associated with the exciplex state with mixed characters of charge-transfer and excited states. In parallel, the substantially nonconjugated bridge of oligo(p-xylene)s exhibited larger attenuation values (β = 0.12 for kFEX and 0.14 Å-1 for kDEX). These results provide deep insight into the unique photodynamics of electronically strongly coupled D-B-A systems involving exciplex.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Chemistry & Advanced Materials, Kyoto Women's University
Contributors: Baek, J., Umeyama, T., Stranius, K., Yamada, H., Tkachenko, N. V., Imahori, H.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 13952-13961
Publication date: 29 Jun 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 121
Issue number: 25
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 2.135 SNIP 1.133
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Energy(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85022231305

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Lubricated icephobic coatings prepared by flame spraying with hybrid feedstock injection

Lubricated icephobic coatings were fabricated by flame spraying with hybrid feedstock injection. In this one-step process, composite coatings were produced by spraying a matrix material from a combustion flame spray gun and a lubricating additive from an injector, externally to the flame. External injection avoided possible thermal degradation of the heat sensitive additive during spraying. Inexpensive and widely available feedstock materials were used, polyethylene as the matrix and solid cottonseed oil as the lubricating additive. The coating properties were investigated by thermal and chemical analyses, surface roughness and wettability measurements at room temperature and in cold conditions. The icephobic behaviour was evaluated by accreting ice from supercooled water droplets in the icing wind tunnel. Ice adhesion was measured by the centrifugal ice adhesion test. The results showed that lubricant addition improved the icephobic performance of the coatings. Moreover, cooling the flame temperature with compressed air addition reduced thermal degradation of polymers. This was beneficial for the icephobic behaviour, thus lowering the shear ice adhesion strength down to 23 kPa ± 6 kPa. In conclusion, lubricated icephobic coatings were successfully produced by combining the hybrid feedstock injection and the thorough optimization of process parameters. This approach provides a potential surface engineering solution for the industrial sectors facing icing problems.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Surface Engineering, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology
Contributors: Donadei, V., Koivuluoto, H., Sarlin, E., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 13
Publication date: 15 Dec 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 403
Article number: 126396
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces, Materials Chemistry, Condensed Matter Physics
Keywords: Ice adhesion, Icephobic coatings, Polymer coatings, Thermal degradation, Thermal spraying
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85090860951

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Luminescent (Er,Ho)2O3 thin films by ALD to enhance the performance of silicon solar cells

We have fabricated luminescent (Er,Ho)2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and studied their capability to enhance the performance of state-of-the-art single-junction c-Si bifacial solar cells. The films convert IR photons (e.g. 1523 nm) by three- and two-photon upconversion process to emit visible-light in the 400–700 nm range. When the films were coupled with solar cells, ~3% improvement in the short-circuit current density (620 ± 5 to 638 ± 5 mAcm−2) was recorded under a simulated solar excitation equivalent to 16 suns. These findings highlight a potential of ALD for the design and fabrication of luminescent coatings for practical solar cell devices.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Research group: ORC, Aalto University, University of Turku
Contributors: Ghazy, A., Safdar, M., Lastusaari, M., Aho, A., Tukiainen, A., Savin, H., Guina, M., Karppinen, M.
Number of pages: 5
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume: 219
Article number: 110787
ISSN (Print): 0927-0248
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Atomic layer deposition, c-Si solar cell, Luminescence, Photonics, Upconversion
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85090731507

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Magnetic non-contact friction from domain wall dynamics actuated by oscillatory mechanical motion

Magnetic friction is a form of non-contact friction arising from the dissipation of energy in a magnet due to spin reorientation in a magnetic field. In this paper, we study magnetic friction in the context of micromagnetics, using our recent implementation of smooth spring-driven motion (Rissanen and Laurson 2018 Phys. Rev. E 97 053301) to simulate ring-down measurements in two setups where domain wall dynamics is induced by mechanical motion. These include a single thin film with a domain wall in an external field and a setup mimicking a magnetic cantilever tip and substrate, in which the two magnets interact through dipolar interactions. We investigate how various micromagnetic parameters influence the domain wall dynamics actuated by the oscillatory spring-driven mechanical motion and the resulting damping coefficient. Our simulations show that the magnitude of magnetic friction can be comparable to other forms of non-contact friction. For oscillation frequencies lower than those inducing excitations of the internal structure of the domain walls, the damping coefficient is found to be independent of frequency. Hence, our results obtained in the frequency range from 8-112 MHz are expected to be relevant also for typical experimental setups operating in the 100 kHz range.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Research area: Computational Physics, Aalto University, COMP Centre of Excellence
Contributors: Rissanen, I., Laurson, L.
Publication date: 13 Aug 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 52
Issue number: 44
Article number: 445002
ISSN (Print): 0022-3727
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 5.3 SJR 0.899 SNIP 1.144
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Condensed Matter Physics, Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: magnetic friction, micromagnetics, thin films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85072336407

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Mechanical characterization of pore-graded bioactive glass scaffolds produced by robocasting

Since the discovery of 45S5 Bioglass® by Larry Hench, bioactive glasses have been widely studied as bone substitute materials and, in more recent years, have also shown great promise for producing three-dimensional scaffolds. The development of additive manufacturing techniques and their application in bone tissue engineering allows the design and fabrication of complex structures with controlled porosity. However, achieving strong and mechanically-reliable bioactive glass scaffolds is still a great challenge. Furthermore, there is a relative paucity of studies reporting an exhaustive assessment of other mechanical properties than compressive strength of glass-derived scaffolds. This research work aimed at determining key mechanical properties of silicate SiO2-Na2O-K2OMgO-CaO-P2O5 glass scaffolds fabricated by robocasting and exhibiting a porosity gradient. When tested in compression, these scaffolds had a strength of 6 MPa, a Young's modulus around 340 MPa, a fracture energy of 93 kJ/m3 and a Weibull modulus of 3, which provides a quantification of the scaffold reliability and reproducibility. Robocasting was a suitable manufacturing method to obtain structures with favorable porosity and mechanical properties comparable to those of the human cancellous bone, which is fundamental regarding osteointegration of bone implants.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: BioMediTech, Politecnico di Torino, McGill University
Contributors: Barberi, J., Nommeots-Nomm, A., Fiume, E., Verné, E., Massera, J., Baino, F.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 140-147
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Biomedical Glasses
Volume: 5
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 2299-3932
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 2.9 SJR 0.39 SNIP 1.056
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Ceramics and Composites, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Bioactive glass, Mechanical properties, Robocasting, Scaffold

Bibliographical note

EXT="Nommeots-Nomm, Amy"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85078096149

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Mechanical, thermal, and burning properties of viscose fabric composites: Influence of epoxy resin modification

The influence of epoxy resin modification by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on various properties of warp knitted viscose fabric is reported in this study. Dynamic mechanical, impact resistance, flexural, thermal properties, and burning behavior of the epoxy/viscose fabric composites are studied with respect to varying content of silane coupling agent. The results obtained for APTES-modified epoxy resin based composites reinforced with unmodified viscose fabric composites are compared to unmodified epoxy resin based composites reinforced with APTES-modified viscose fabric. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the APTES-modified resin based composites indicates improved interfacial adhesion. The composites prepared from modified epoxy resin exhibited a twofold increase in impact resistance. The improved adhesion between the fiber and modified resin was also visible from the scanning electron microscope analysis of the impact fracture surface. There was less influence of resin modification on the flexural properties of the composites. The 5% APTES modification induced early degradation of composites compared to all other composites. The burning rate of all the composites under study is rated to be satisfactory for use in automotive interior applications.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Centria University of Applied Sciences, University of Borås, Yanbu Industrial College, Jozef Stefan Institute, Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery
Contributors: Rajan, R., Rainosalo, E., Ramamoorthy, S. K., Thomas, S. P., Zavašnik, J., Vuorinen, J., Skrifvars, M.
Publication date: 20 Sep 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume: 135
Issue number: 36
Article number: 46673
ISSN (Print): 0021-8995
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 4 SJR 0.554 SNIP 0.842
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Polymers and Plastics, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: cellulose and other wood products, functionalization of polymers, mechanical properties, thermal properties, thermosets

Bibliographical note

EXT="Skrifvars, Mikael"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85049105961

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Membrane bound COMT isoform is an interfacial enzyme: General mechanism and new drug design paradigm

The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has water soluble (S-COMT) and membrane associated (MB-COMT), bitopic, isoforms. Of these MB-COMT is a drug target in relation to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Using a combination of computational and experimental protocols, we have determined the substrate selection mechanism specific to MB-COMT. We show: (1) substrates with preferred affinity for MB-COMT over S-COMT orient in the membrane in a fashion conducive to catalysis from the membrane surface and (2) binding of COMT to its cofactor ADOMET induces conformational change that drives the catalytic surface of the protein to the membrane surface, where the substrates and Mg2+ ions, required for catalysis, are found. Bioinformatics analysis reveals evidence of this mechanism in other proteins, including several existing drug targets. The development of new COMT inhibitors with preferential affinity for MB-COMT over S-COMT is now possible and insight of broader relevance, into the function of bitopic enzymes, is provided.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Universite de Geneve
Contributors: Magarkar, A., Parkkila, P., Viitala, T., Lajunen, T., Mobarak, E., Licari, G., Cramariuc, O., Vauthey, E., Róg, T., Bunker, A.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 3440-3443
Publication date: 11 Apr 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Chemical Communications
Volume: 54
Issue number: 28
ISSN (Print): 1359-7345
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 11.6 SJR 2.177 SNIP 1.145
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Catalysis, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Ceramics and Composites, Chemistry(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85044968200

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Microphase mechanism of "superquenching" of luminescent probes in aqueous solutions of DNA and some other polyelectrolytes

A new approach in terms of microphase model of aqueous solutions of polyelectrolytes is proposed for explanation of a very strong quenching of luminescent probes ("superquenching") in these solutions. This phenomenon is used in literature for creation of extremely sensitive chemical and biosensors and was attributed predominantly to efficient energy or electron transfer. Microphase approach considers this phenomenon in terms of local concentrations of both the luminescent compound and of the quencher in microphase, formed by DNA and other polyelectrolytes, which can be several (4-10) orders of magnitude greater than their apparent concentrations in solution. Large local concentrations of the light absorbing centers in the microphase also provide conditions for aggregation of these centers and efficient energy transfer, which provides a significant increase in quenching constants (∼102-105). Microphase approach provides good quantitative description of all the features of the superquenching, new possibilities for analysis and control of kinetics of DNA reactions, and for improvement of the sensitivity of luminescent sensors. It reveals nonspecific localization of the luminescent centers and of Aun nanoparticles in different positions of DNA molecules that hinders from the simultaneous use of optical methods and electron or tunneling microscopy for the combined study of the structure of DNA.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Frontier Photonics, Moscow State University, Emanuel’ Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences
Contributors: Kuzmin, M. G., Soboleva, I. V., Durandin, N. A., Lisitsyna, E. S., Kuzmin, V. A.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 4245-4252
Publication date: 17 Apr 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 118
Issue number: 15
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.449 SNIP 1.13
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84899003075

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Micro-Raman characterization of Germanium thin films evaporated on various substrates

We perform an extensive micro-Raman analysis of Germanium thin films physically evaporated on several substrates including silicon, silicon oxide and glass. We investigate the dependence of crystal quality on thin film deposition parameters such as substrate temperature and growth rate. We also study the continuous transitional change of the material structure from amorphous to crystalline phases. Ge films obtained by this simple and low cost technique are a viable solution towards the realization of virtual substrates and devices.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Frontier Photonics, University “Roma Tre”, Nonlinear Optics and OptoElectronics Lab, Universit Degli Studi dell'Aquila
Contributors: Sorianello, V., Colace, L., Assanto, G., Nardone, M.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 492-495
Publication date: Apr 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Microelectronic Engineering
Volume: 88
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 0167-9317
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 2.8 SJR 0.813 SNIP 1.148
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Condensed Matter Physics
Keywords: Germanium, Raman characterization, Thin films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79751538206

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Microstructural and abrasion wear characteristics of laser-clad tool steel coatings

Several different tool steel grades were deposited on mild steel by the laser-cladding process with coaxial powder feeding. With bidirectional scanning pattern, most of the grades were deposited crack-free with hardness up to 1000 HV without additional preheating. In a 3-body abrasion wear study, the laser clad Ralloy® WR6 with significant portion of retained austenite exhibited superior abrasive wear resistance compared with the predominantly martensitic tool steel coatings (M2, M4, H13, HS-23, HS-30) and the reference material, Raex® Ar500 wear resistant steel. The abrasion wear resistance of austenitic–martensitic WR6 tool steel was further enhanced by the external addition of 20% volume percentage of relatively large (45–106 µm) vanadium carbides. In single point scratch tests, predominantly martensitic tool steels outperformed austenitic–martensitic tool steels and wear resistant steel. The differences in wear performances were explained by different wear mechanisms and types of contact between the abrasive and the surface.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Technology Centre Ketek Ltd.
Contributors: Tuominen, J., Näkki, J., Pajukoski, H., Hyvärinen, L., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 923-933
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface Engineering
Volume: 32
Issue number: 12
ISSN (Print): 0267-0844
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 2.1 SJR 0.424 SNIP 0.754
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces and Interfaces, Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Conservation
Keywords: 3-Body abrasion wear, Laser cladding, Metal matrix composite, Scratch test, Tool steel, Wear resistant steel

Bibliographical note

EXT="Näkki, J."
INT=mol,"Pajukoski, H."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84978499771

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Microstructure and Sliding Wear Behavior of Fe-Based Coatings Manufactured with HVOF and HVAF Thermal Spray Processes

The microstructure and micromechanical behavior of thermally sprayed Fe-based coatings manufactured with high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) processes were investigated. Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C powders were used as the feedstock materials. The coatings showed a highly dense microstructure with near-zero oxidation. The microstructure of the feedstock powders was better retained when sprayed with HVAF process. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed two small exothermic peaks at about 600 °C for the HVOF-sprayed coatings, without any increase in weight in thermogravimetric analysis. It suggested the re-precipitation of carbides that were dissolved during spraying due to the higher particle temperature reported by spray diagnostics system during the HVOF process (≈1800 °C) compared to the HVAF one (≈1400 °C). Micro- and nano-indentations helped to show the difference in inter-lamellar cohesive strength and, in turn, in the particle deposition mechanism. Coatings sprayed with Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C composition possessed higher sliding wear resistance than that of Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C due to higher nano-hardness. More specifically, HVOF-sprayed Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C coating showed the largest intra-lamellar hardness, the largest elasticity, and high quality of particle interfaces which resulted in lower sliding wear rate.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering
Contributors: Milanti, A., Matikainen, V., Bolelli, G., Koivuluoto, H., Lusvarghi, L., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 16
Pages: 1040–1055
Publication date: Jun 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 27 Apr 2016

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 25
Issue number: 5
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 3.1 SJR 0.659 SNIP 0.932
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: iron alloys, protective coatings, wear resistant coatings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Microwave induced hierarchical nanostructures on aramid fibers and their influence on adhesion properties in a rubber matrix

Several commercial surface treatments are used to increase the adhesion between aramid fibers and the matrix material in composite structures but each of these has some limitations. The aim of this study is to address some of these limitations by developing a surface treatment method for aramid fibers that would not affect mechanical properties of the fibers negatively, could be used with any matrix material and that could withstand handling of the fibers and ageing. The method used is microwave assisted surface treatment that uses microwave radiation together with dry reactive chemicals to create hierarchical structures to the fiber surface and so makes it possible to control the adhesion properties of the fibers. SEM and AFM imaging, fiber tensile tests and modified bundle pull-out test were used to investigate the outcome of the surface treatment and measure adhesion between aramid fiber bundles and rubber. SEM and AFM imaging revealed that nanoscale deposits are formed on to the fiber surface which enable mechanical interlocking between the fiber and the matrix material. Fiber tensile tests showed that the surface treatment does not influence the tensile properties of the fiber negatively. Results from the bundle pull-out tests confirmed that this kind of method can lead up to 259% improvement in adhesion when compared to untreated aramid fibers in the rubber matrix.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Plastics and Elastomer Technology, Institute for Materials and Processes, University of Edinburgh
Contributors: Palola, S., Sarlin, E., Kolahgar Azari, S., Koutsos, V., Vuorinen, J.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 145-153
Publication date: 15 Jul 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Applied Surface Science
Volume: 410
ISSN (Print): 0169-4332
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 6.7 SJR 1.093 SNIP 1.328
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Adhesion, Aramid fiber, Hierarchical structures, Mechanical interlocking, Microwave treatment, Surface modification
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85015699935

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Mining tailings as raw materials for reaction-sintered aluminosilicate ceramics: Effect of mineralogical composition on microstructure and properties

This paper presents studies on the utilization of aluminosilicate-based mining tailings as raw materials for mullite-based ceramics. Based on the 3:2 stoichiometric composition, mullite was synthesised by reactive sintering with a series of powder mixtures with alumina additions. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that, at the specific mineralogical composition, mullite structure formed surrounded by an amorphous glass phase in reaction-sintered powder mixtures. Results demonstrated that the chemical and mineralogical composition of mining tailings do have an effect on mullite formation possibilities and, only with the particular mineralogical composition, the mullite formation is possible regardless of the correct Al:Si ratio in tailings. Physical and mechanical properties of the formed ceramics were defined, showing comparable values to 3:2 mullite reference. Mullite structure formation enables a better thermal resistance up to above 1450 °C of the formed tailings-based ceramics compared to other aluminosilicates, reflecting their utilization potential for refractory ceramic applications.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Geologian tutkimuskeskus
Contributors: Karhu, M., Lagerbom, J., Solismaa, S., Honkanen, M., Ismailov, A., Räisänen, M. L., Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., Levänen, E., Kivikytö-Reponen, P.
Pages: 4840-4848
Publication date: Mar 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 2018

Publication information

Journal: Ceramics International
Volume: 45
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 0272-8842
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 6.1 SJR 0.891 SNIP 1.31
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Ceramics and Composites, Process Chemistry and Technology, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Mining tailings, Mullite, Reaction sintering, Refractory ceramics, Utilization

Bibliographical note

EXT="Lagerbom, Juha"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85057276435

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Modification of Surface States of Hematite-Based Photoanodes by Submonolayer of TiO2for Enhanced Solar Water Splitting

Surface states are inherently involved with photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar fuel production; some of them are beneficial and participate in the surface reactions, but some act as recombination centers and therefore limit the PEC efficiency. Surface treatments have been applied to modify the surface states, but interrelated effects of the treatments on both types of surface states have not been properly considered. This research examines the modification of the surface states on hematite-based photoanodes by atomic layer deposition of submonolayer amount of TiO2 and by postannealing treatments. Our results show that the postannealing causes diffusion of Ti deeper into the hematite surface layers, which leads to an increased saturation photocurrent and an anodic shift in the photocurrent onset potential. Without postannealing, the separate TiO2 phase on the hematite surface results in a second intermediate surface state and delayed charge carrier dynamics, i.e., passivation of the recombination surface states. It is evident by these results that the intermediate surface states observed with impedance spectroscopy in a PEC cell are directly involved in the surface reaction and not with the recombination surface states observed with ultrafast (picoseconds-nanoseconds) transient absorption spectroscopy in air. These results open new optimization strategies to control the beneficial and detrimental surface states independently.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Surface Science, Physics, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry and Advanced Materials Group
Contributors: Palmolahti, L., Ali-Löytty, H., Khan, R., Saari, J., Tkachenko, N. V., Valden, M.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 13094-13101
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 124
Issue number: 24
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Energy(all), Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85088902594

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Morphological and structural changes in laser CVD of silicon: comparison of theoretical temperature calculations with experimental results

The paper considers to what extent theoretical calculation of the laser induced temperature profile in a substrate can be used to predict the morphology and structure of silicon tracks deposited by pyrolytic LCVD. The micron scale tracks are deposited from silane using a focussed argon ion laser onto a substrate consisting of 1000 Å SiO2 upon a 300 μm thick, 100 mm diameter, [100] silicon wafer. The influence of various experimental parameters such as scan speed, laser power, gas pressure and gas composition on the temperature profile and on the deposited silicon track is investigated. Temperature profiles and their time evolution are simulated by numerically solving the heat diffusion equation using a finite difference approach. The track deposition is simulated using experimental temperature and pressure dependent growth rates. Gaussian shaped low laser power track profiles are well reproduced but the volcano like structures of high power deposition are not explained by the present model alone. The calculations are found to explain, at least qualitatively, the observed relationships between various experimental parameters.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Herriot-Watt University, Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu
Contributors: Milne, D., Wilson, J. I. B., Rantala, T. T., Lenkkeri, J.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 81-86
Publication date: 2 Dec 1989
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Applied Surface Science
Volume: 43
Issue number: 1-4
ISSN (Print): 0169-4332
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Condensed Matter Physics
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 0024900802

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Morphology evolution of PS-b-PDMS block copolymer and its hierarchical directed self-assembly on block copolymer templates

Cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS, 27.2k-b-11.7k, SD39) block copolymer having a total molecular weight of 39 kg mol−1 was exploited to achieve in-plane morphologies of lines, dots and antidots. Brush-free self-assembly of the SD39 on silicon substrates was investigated using solvents that were PS or PDMS selective, neutral and non-solvents based on their Hansen solubility parameters. The different morphologies were achieved with annealing times ranging from 10 min to 1 h at room temperature. The SD39 patterns were used as an etch mask for transferring the pattern into the underlying substrate. Directed self-assembly and hierarchical directed self-assembly on block copolymer templates for confinement of dots was successfully demonstrated. The strategy for achieving multiple morphologies using one BCP by mere choice of the annealing solvents on unmodified substrates provides a simplified method for surface nanopatterning, templated growth of nanomaterials and nanofabrication.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Photonics, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU Informatik, Trinity College Dublin, Laboratory of Photonics
Contributors: Rasappa, S., Schulte, L., Borah, D., Hulkkonen, H., Ndoni, S., Salminen, T., Senthamaraikanan, R., Morris, M. A., Niemi, T.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 1-7
Publication date: 15 May 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Microelectronic Engineering
Volume: 192
ISSN (Print): 0167-9317
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 4.2 SJR 0.561 SNIP 0.958
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Block copolymer, Hansen solubility, Hierarchical self-assembly, Selective solvent
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85041706803

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Non-destructive and wireless monitoring of biodegradable polymers

A method for monitoring changes in biodegradable polymers during hydrolysis is proposed. This wireless and non-destructive method is based on inductively coupled passive resonance sensors embedded in the polymer shell. In this study, we prepared specimens using two poly(lactide-co-glycolide) copolymers possessing different degradation profiles. The copolymer embedded sensors were immersed in buffer solution and their resonance features were compared with periodically performed conventional polymer characterization methods. A clear difference was noticed in the wirelessly measured signals between the two tested copolymer materials. Also the reference methods showed clear differences between the degradation profiles of the copolymers. The wirelessly measured signals are likely to correlate to the structural changes in the materials during the hydrolysis. In the future, this technique could be used in the laboratory to provide easy-to-access in situ information about the polymers. Even the state of biodegradable polymer implants could be wirelessly monitored.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Research area: Microsystems, Research group: Sensor Technology and Biomeasurements (STB), Research group: Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, BioMediTech
Contributors: Salpavaara, T., Hänninen, A., Antniemi, A., Lekkala, J., Kellomäki, M.
Pages: 1018-1025
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Volume: 251
ISSN (Print): 0925-4005
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 9.3 SJR 1.406 SNIP 1.453
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Instrumentation, Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Biodegradable polymers, Passive resonance sensor, Poly(lactide-co-glycolide), Telemetry, Wireless monitoring
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020132649

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Nonlinear Optical Properties of Fluorescent Dyes Allow for Accurate Determination of Their Molecular Orientations in Phospholipid Membranes

Several methods based on single- and two-photon fluorescence detected linear dichroism have recently been used to determine the orientational distributions of fluorescent dyes in lipid membranes. However, these determinations relied on simplified descriptions of nonlinear anisotropic properties of the dye molecules, using a transition dipole-moment-like vector instead of an absorptivity tensor. To investigate the validity of the vector approximation, we have now carried out a combination of computer simulations and polarization microscopy experiments on two representative fluorescent dyes (DiI and F2N12S) embedded in aqueous phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Our results indicate that a simplified vector-like treatment of the two-photon transition tensor is applicable for molecular geometries sampled in the membrane at ambient conditions. Furthermore, our results allow evaluation of several distinct polarization microscopy techniques. In combination, our results point to a robust and accurate experimental and computational treatment of orientational distributions of DiI, F2N12S, and related dyes (including Cy3, Cy5, and others), with implications to monitoring physiologically relevant processes in cellular membranes in a novel way.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Physics, Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Department of Cybernetics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology GCRC, V.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, University of South Bohemia
Contributors: Timr, Š., Brabec, J., Bondar, A., Ryba, T., Železný, M., Lazar, J., Jungwirth, P.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 9706-9716
Publication date: 30 Jul 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 21 Jul 2015

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 119
Issue number: 30
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.335 SNIP 1.058
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Bibliographical note

EXT="Bondar, Alexey"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84938277609

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Normal displacements in non-Coulomb friction conditions during fretting

Non-Coulomb friction may occur in gross sliding fretting conditions, in which the tangential force increases as the fretting movement approaches its extreme position and produces 'hooked' fretting loops. Uncertainties in frictional behaviour make the design of highly loaded contacts against fretting a challenging task. Experiments were made with quenched and tempered steel, and cyclic normal displacements were discovered during non-Coulomb friction conditions. Normal displacement and non-Coulomb friction were caused by tangential fretting scar interactions between protrusions and depressions formed by material transfer. Tangential interlocking leads to inclined sliding conditions, which produce loading components in both tangential and normal directions; this explains most non-Coulomb friction.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Research and Development, Wärtsilä Finland
Contributors: Hintikka, J., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A.
Pages: 633-639
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 1 Nov 2015

Publication information

Journal: Tribology International
Volume: 94
ISSN (Print): 0301-679X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 1.386 SNIP 2.125
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics of Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Fretting, Friction, Wear
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84946600355

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Novel borosilicate bioactive scaffolds with persistent luminescence

Persistent luminescent amorphous borosilicate scaffolds were successfully prepared, for the first time, with a porosity of >70% using the burn-off technique. The persistent luminescence was obtained by adding the SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ microparticles: i) in the glass melt or ii) in the glass crushed into powder prior to the sintering. The scaffolds prepared by adding the microparticles in the glass melt exhibits lower persistent luminescence and a slower reaction rate in simulated body fluid than the scaffolds prepared by adding the microparticles in the glass powder due to the release of strontium from the microparticles into the glass during the glass melting.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: BioMediTech, Research group: Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Physics, Research group: Photonics Glasses, Turun yliopisto
Contributors: Del Cerro, P. R., Teittinen, H., Norrbo, I., Lastusaari, M., Massera, J., Petit, L.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 1-9
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Biomedical Glasses
Volume: 6
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 2299-3932
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Ceramics and Composites, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Borosilicate glasses, Direct particle doping method, Dy microparticles, In-vitro testing, Persistent luminescence, Scaffold, SrAlO:Eu

Bibliographical note

INT=phys,"Del Cerro, Paloma Roldan"
INT=bmte,"Teittinen, Henriikka"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85085038962

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Novel Online Diagnostic Analysis for In-Flight Particle Properties in Cold Spraying

In cold spraying, powder particles are accelerated by preheated supersonic gas stream to high velocities and sprayed on a substrate. The particle velocities depend on the equipment design and process parameters, e.g., on the type of the process gas and its pressure and temperature. These, in turn, affect the coating structure and the properties. The particle velocities in cold spraying are high, and the particle temperatures are low, which can, therefore, be a challenge for the diagnostic methods. A novel optical online diagnostic system, HiWatch HR, will open new possibilities for measuring particle in-flight properties in cold spray processes. The system employs an imaging measurement technique called S-PTV (sizing-particle tracking velocimetry), first introduced in this research. This technique enables an accurate particle size measurement also for small diameter particles with a large powder volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the velocities of metallic particles sprayed with HPCS and LPCS systems and with varying process parameters. The measured in-flight particle properties were further linked to the resulting coating properties. Furthermore, the camera was able to provide information about variations during the spraying, e.g., fluctuating powder feeding, which is important from the process control and quality control point of view.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, Oseir Ltd.
Contributors: Koivuluoto, H., Matikainen, V., Larjo, J., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 423–432
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 11 Jan 2018

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
Volume: 27
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 3.6 SJR 0.694 SNIP 1.117
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: cold spraying, diagnostics, in-flight properties, particle size, particle velocity
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85040347243

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Numerical simulation of temperature distributions in layered structures during laser processing

A numerical simulation approach for the evaluation of temperature distribution in layer structured substrates during laser processing is introduced. The explicit finite-difference solution of the heat equation is used and the full non-linearity of the heat diffusion is taken into account by temperature dependent substrate parameters. The heat equations for layered structures are solved using both rectangular and cylindrical coordinate systems. The method is applied to CW Ar+ laser-induced temperature distributions in some commonly used layer structures in microelectronics, such as silicon on sapphire (SOS) and SiO2 coated silicon. Results are compared with experiments.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: University of Oulu, Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories
Contributors: Levoska, J., Rantala, T. T., Lenkkeri, J.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 12-22
Publication date: 1989
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Applied Surface Science
Volume: 36
Issue number: 1-4
ISSN (Print): 0169-4332
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Condensed Matter Physics
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 0024301353

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Observation of off-axis directional beaming via subwavelength asymmetric metallic gratings

It is possible to obtain enhanced and directional beams using subwavelength metallic structures. However, the enhanced beams throughout such structures are only directed towards the propagation direction. In this study, we design the output surface gratings asymmetrically in order to steer the beaming angle. We use a metallic structure with a subwavelength slit (λ/10) and grating periods of 14 mm and 22 mm on different sides of the output surface. We demonstrate off-axis directional beaming in the microwave regime with an FWHM of 10° with a beaming angle of 15°. The beaming angle can be changed by arranging the grating periods of the output surface of the metallic structure.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Bilkent University, Harvard University
Contributors: Caglayan, H., Bulu, I., Ozbay, E.
Publication date: 2009
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 42
Issue number: 4
Article number: 045105
ISSN (Print): 0022-3727
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2009): SJR 1.269 SNIP 1.326
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Condensed Matter Physics

Bibliographical note

EXT="Caglayan, H."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 67650075571

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

One-step flame synthesis of silver nanoparticles for roll-to-roll production of antibacterial paper

Nanoparticles are used in several applications due to the unique properties they possess compared to bulk materials. Production techniques have continuously evolved over the years. Recently, there has been emphasis on environmentally friendly manufacturing processes. Substrate properties often limit the possible production techniques and, for example; until recently, it has been difficult to incorporate nanoparticles into paper. Chemical reduction of a precursor in the presence of paper changes the bulk properties of paper, which may limit intended end-use. In this study, we present a novel technique for incorporating silver nanoparticles into paper surface using a flame pyrolysis procedure known as Liquid Flame Spray. Papers precoated with mineral pigments and plastic are used as substrates. Silver nanoparticles were analyzed using SEM and XPS measurements. Results show a homogeneous monolayer of silver nanoparticles on the surface of paper, which demonstrated antibacterial properties against E. coli. Paper precoated with plastic showed more nanoparticles on the surface compared to pigment coated paper samples except for polyethylene-precoated paper. The results demonstrate a dry synthesis approach for depositing silver nanoparticles directly onto paper surface in a process which produces no effluents. The production technique used herein is up scalable for industrial production of antibacterial paper.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Abo Akad Univ, Abo Akademi University, Dept Phys, Turun Yliopisto/Turun Biomateriaalikeskus
Contributors: Brobbey, K. J., Haapanen, J., Gunell, M., Mäkelä, J. M., Eerola, E., Toivakka, M., Saarinen, J. J.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 558-565
Publication date: 31 Oct 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Applied Surface Science
Volume: 420
ISSN (Print): 0169-4332
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 6.7 SJR 1.093 SNIP 1.328
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Antibacterial paper, Liquid flame spray, Roll-to-roll processing, Silver nanoparticles
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020047753

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

On the alignment of ZnO nanowires by Langmuir – Blodgett technique for sensing application

Nanowires are of interest for gas sensing application due to their one dimensional nature and size approaching quantum confinement limit, best studied in single nanowire devices. The reaction between gases and the semiconductor surface is better exploited when one, or few nanowires are involved. Yet, the widespread use of single nanowire devices is prevented by the need of expensive techniques to fabricate contacts. Here we applied the Langmuir-Blodgett technique to align ZnO nanowires between electrodes being two microns apart in a configuration that possess both the quality of single nanowire devices and the advantages of multiple nanowires. We achieved alignment without using lithography, so the procedure is inexpensive and scalable. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that the obtained chips are suitable for sensing of NO2, either at 200 °C or at room temperature with light activation. We discussed the obtained sensing parameters as a function of supra and sub-bandgap photoactivation.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, National Research Council -, Universita degli Studi di Brescia, South–Ukrainian National University
Contributors: Baratto, C., Golovanova, V., Faglia, G., Hakola, H., Niemi, T., Tkachenko, N., Nazarchurk, B., Golovanov, V.
Publication date: 30 Oct 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: Jun 2020

Publication information

Journal: Applied Surface Science
Volume: 528
Article number: 146959
ISSN (Print): 0169-4332
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Physics and Astronomy(all), Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Aligned nanowires, Chemical sensor, Langmuir Blodgett, NO, Photoactivation, Surface reaction, ZnO
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85086826170

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

On the limit of superhydrophobicity: Defining the minimum amount of TiO2 nanoparticle coating

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces in large scale has been in high interest for several years, also titanium oxide nanostructures having been applied for the purpose. Optimizing the amount and structure of the TiO2 material in the coating will play a key role when considering upscaling. Here, we take a look at fabricating the superhydrophobic surface in a one-step roll-to-roll pilot scale process by depositing TiO2 nanoparticles from a Liquid Flame Spray onto a moving paperboard substrate. In order to find the minimum amount of nanomaterial still sufficient for creating superhydrophobicity, we varied nanoparticle production rate, flame distance from the substrate and line speed. Since the deposited amount of material sideways from the flame path was seen to decrease gradually, spatial analysis enabled us to consistently determine the minimum amount of TiO2 nanoparticles on the substrate needed to achieve superhydrophobicity. Amount as low as 20-30 mg m-2 of TiO2 nanoparticles was observed to be sufficient. The scanning electron microscopy revealed that at this amount, the surface was covered with nanoparticles only partially, but still sufficiently to create a hierarchical structure to affect wetting significantly. Based on XPS analysis, it became apparent that TiO2 gathers hydrocarbons on the surface to develop the surface chemistry towards hydrophobic, but below the critical amount of TiO2 nanoparticles, the chemistry could not enable superhydrophobicity anymore. While varying the deposited amount of TiO2, besides the local spatial variance of the coating amount, also the overall yield was studied. Within the text matrix, a yield up to 44% was achieved. In conclusion, superhydrophobicity was achieved at all tested line speeds (50 to 300 m min-1), even if the amount of TiO2 varied significantly (20 to 230 mg m-2).

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Research group: Aerosol Synthesis, Research area: Aerosol Physics, Materials Science, Packaging Technology Research Team, Physics at Interfaces, Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Bioscience and Materials/Surface, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Finnish Environment Institute, Abo Akad Univ, Abo Akademi University, Dept Phys, AGH University of Science and Technology, University of Eastern Finland
Contributors: Haapanen, J., Aromaa, M., Teisala, H., Juuti, P., Tuominen, M., Sillanpää, M., Stepien, M., Saarinen, J. J., Toivakka, M., Kuusipalo, J., Mäkelä, J. M.
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 5 Dec 2018

Publication information

Journal: Materials Research Express
Volume: 6
Issue number: 3
Article number: 035004
ISSN (Print): 2053-1591
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 1.5 SJR 0.365 SNIP 0.661
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Biomaterials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Polymers and Plastics, Metals and Alloys
Keywords: liquid flame spray, nanocoatings, nanoparticles, superhydrophobic, TiO, titanium dioxide, wetting
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85059238010

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Optical power monitors in Ge monolithically integrated on SOI chips

We report on the fabrication and operation of optical power monitors monolithically integrated on silicon-on-insulator optical chips. The devices consist of near-infrared waveguide pn heterojunction photodiodes in evaporated germanium. The low temperature growth of Ge is compatible with silicon waveguide technology. The photodetectors exhibit typical responsivities of 10-30 mA/W; the power monitors are used with front-end trans-impedance amplifiers based on commercially available operational amplifiers and can operate with optical signals as small as 10 nW, with errors below 0.2% and 2% at 1 and 0.1 μW, respectively.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Frontier Photonics, University “Roma Tre”, Nonlinear Optics and OptoElectronics Lab
Contributors: Colace, L., Sorianello, V., Romagnoli, M., Socci, L., Assanto, G.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 514-517
Publication date: Apr 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Microelectronic Engineering
Volume: 88
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 0167-9317
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 2.8 SJR 0.813 SNIP 1.148
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Condensed Matter Physics
Keywords: Germanium, Integrated optoelectronics, Photodetectors, Powermonitor, Silicon-on-insulator
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79751538504

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Optimised selection of new protective coatings for biofuel boiler applications

Using biofuels in power and CHP boilers can pose a challenge for materials performance. Formation of deposits containing e.g. potassium, sulphur, calcium, sodium, and chlorine can result in severe corrosion of conventional steels and alloys at relatively modest temperatures. Given suitable component design and fabrication facilities, coatings may be considered to protect the fireside surfaces. This paper aims to present a systematic approach to the design and selection criteria for protective coatings of boilers. The approach includes modelling of the process and surface conditions, optimisation of the coating process and structure, and performance validation in the laboratory and plant scales. The applied examples have included iron and nickel based HVOF and arc sprayed coatings subjected to verification field testing in boiler testing under aggressive biofuel conditions. The coatings have shown good corrosion resistance in both laboratory tests and long-term harsh field tests. The paper discusses the used approach for finding a suitable and cost effective coating for biofuel boiler applications. The paper gives test results from microstructural, corrosion resistance and field testing experience for the selected coatings.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Tuurna, S., Varis, T., Penttilä, K., Ruusuvuori, K., Holmström, S., Yli-Olli, S.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 642-649
Publication date: Jul 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Materials and Corrosion-Werkstoffe und Korrosion
Volume: 62
Issue number: 7
ISSN (Print): 0947-5117
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 1.7 SJR 0.603 SNIP 1.109
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Environmental Chemistry, Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: biofuel boiler, coating performance, life extension, protection
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79960241231

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Optimization of convectively cooled heat sinks

Many factors of heat sink, such as its size and mass, component locations, number of fins, and fan power affect heat transfer. Owing to the opposite effects of these factors on heat sink maximum temperature, we have now a multi-objective optimization problem. A typical optimization case consists of hundreds of heat sink temperature field evaluations, which would be impractical to do with CFD. Instead, we propose to combine analytical results of convection and numerical solution of conduction to address these so-called conjugated heat transfer problems. We solve heat conduction in a solid numerically using the finite volume method and tackle convection with the analytical equation of forced convection in a parallel plate channel.This model is suitable for forced and natural convection heat sinks, and we have verified its validity by comparing its results to measured data and CFD calculations. We use the model to improve two industrial examples, using a multi-objective version of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The first example is a forced convection heat sink composed of nine heat generating components at the base plate, and the other is a natural convection case with two components. In both cases, mass is minimized; the other criterion is maximum temperature for the forced convection case and heat sink outer volume for the natural convection case. Our method is many orders of magnitude faster than CFD. Additionally, we provide some LES results of pin fins with natural convection for further use in similar optimizations.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Bio- and Circular Economy, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Systems
Contributors: Lampio, K., Karvinen, R.
Pages: 473-479
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Microelectronics Reliability
Volume: 79
ISSN (Print): 0026-2714
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 2.6 SJR 0.388 SNIP 0.907
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Condensed Matter Physics, Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Fin array, Forced convection, Heat sink, Multi-objective optimization, Natural convection, Pin fins
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020690970

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Optimization of HVOF Cr3C2-NiCr coating for increased fatigue performance

Thermally sprayed coatings are strong candidates to be used for replacement of hard chromium – process which is regarded as an environmental risk – in many sliding surfaces for engineering applications such as hydraulic cylinders and aircraft landing gears. Recent advance in thermal spraying technology, based on the increase of the spray particle velocity, has led to improved coating quality. This study focuses on the fatigue performance of structural steel coated with Cr3C2[Formula presented] coating. Coating has been produced by using high kinetic HVOF thermal spray process. First, the coating was optimized for fatigue purposes by studying the residual stress generation. The optimized coating was selected for deposition of axial fatigue tests specimens, whose fatigue performance was compared to the uncoated steel specimens having different surface treatments (turning, polishing, and shot blasting) relevant for the target applications. The results showed that by using a high kinetic energy coating, the fatigue performance of Cr3C2[Formula presented] coated structural steel was clearly improved compared to uncoated steel of similar surface quality. Increased fatigue resistance of the coated material was attributed to the substantial compressive residual stresses that hindered crack initiation and that was caused by the high velocity spray particles during the coating process.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Surface Engineering, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Aalto University, Technical University of Liberec
Contributors: Varis, T., Suhonen, T., Calonius, O., Čuban, J., Pietola, M.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 123-131
Publication date: 15 Nov 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 305
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 0.882 SNIP 1.385
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: CrC[Formula presented] coating, Fatigue performance, HVOF thermal spray, Residual stress, S-N curve, Wear resistance
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84981273135

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Orientational dependence of the affinity of guanidinium ions to the water surface

The behavior of guanidinium chloride at the surface of aqueous solutions is investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is found that the population of guanidinium ions oriented parallel to the interface is greater in the surface region than in bulk. The opposite is true for ions in other orientations. Overall, guanidinium chloride is depleted in the surface region, in agreement with the fact that the addition of guanidinium chloride increases the surface tension of water. The orientational dependence of the surface affinity of the guanidinium cation is related to its anisotropic hydration. To bring the ion to the surface in the parallel orientation does not require hydrogen bonds to be broken, in contrast to other orientations. The surface enrichment of parallel-oriented guanidinium indicates that its solvation is more favorable near the surface than in bulk solution for this orientation. The dependence of the bulk and surface properties of guanidinium on the force field parameters is also investigated. Despite significant quantitative differences between the force fields, the surface behavior is qualitatively robust. The implications for the orientations of the guanidinium groups of arginine side chains on protein surfaces are also outlined.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computational Science X (CompX), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Bijenička Cesta 54, Lund University, Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell Univ.
Contributors: Wernersson, E., Heyda, J., Vazdar, M., Lund, M., Mason, P. E., Jungwirth, P.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 12521-12526
Publication date: 3 Nov 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 115
Issue number: 43
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 6.3 SJR 1.801 SNIP 1.213
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 80054988916

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Oxidation of cholesterol does not alter significantly its uptake into high-density lipoprotein particles

Using replica exchange umbrella sampling we calculated free energy profiles for uptake of cholesterol and one of its oxysterols (7-ketocholesterol) from an aqueous solution into a high-density lipoprotein particle. These atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that both sterols are readily taken up from the aqueous solution with comparable free energy minima at the surface of the particle of-17 kcal/mol for cholesterol and-14 kcal/mol for 7-ketocholesterol. Moreover, given its preferred position at the particle surface, 7-ketocholesterol is expected to be able to participate directly in biological signaling processes.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Physics, Research group: Biological Physics and Soft Matter, Computational Science X (CompX), University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Contributors: Karilainen, T., Timr, Š., Vattulainen, I., Jungwirth, P.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 4594-4600
Publication date: 2 Apr 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 119
Issue number: 13
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.335 SNIP 1.058
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84926433475

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Oxygen and water vapor transmission rates of starch-poly(vinyl alcohol) barrier coatings for flexible packaging paper

Creating efficient water-borne dispersions based mainly on renewable materials for coating of flexible packaging paper was the aim of this study. The effects of an ethylene modified poly(vinyl alcohol) grade and a standard poly(vinyl alcohol) on the oxygen and water vapor barrier performance of corn starch and potato starch coatings was studied. The results showed that a coating composition with a high fraction of a renewable polymer was effective in keeping the oxygen barrier at a technically and commercially applicable level. An ethylene modified poly(vinyl alcohol) grade was found to provide lower oxygen transmission rates at high relative humidity, as compared to a standard poly(vinyl alcohol) grade. The oxygen barrier properties of blends of starch and poly(vinyl alcohol) were similar to that of the pure modified poly(vinyl alcohol) in the range from 0% starch to 60% starch. This was observed with both hydroxypropylated and octenyl succinate modified starch grades. The drying conditions of the mixed starch:poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings were based on drying trials with pure poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings. Drying at moderate temperatures indicated the possibility to slightly decrease water vapor transmission rate by higher drying temperature. Several secondary effects of increased drying temperature such as coating hold-out and formation of defects may also be of importance.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Karlstad University
Contributors: Christophliemk, H., Johansson, C., Ullsten, H., Järnström, L.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 218-224
Publication date: 1 Dec 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Progress in Organic Coatings
Volume: 113
ISSN (Print): 0300-9440
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 5.1 SJR 0.844 SNIP 1.334
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemical Engineering(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Organic Chemistry, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Barrier coating, Drying, Oxygen transmission rate, Poly(vinyl alcohol), Starch, Water vapor transmission rate
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85019946529

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Passive resonance sensor based method for monitoring particle suspensions

Control of particle suspensions is needed in several modern industrial processes. A reason for the difficulty in this task has been the lack of a fast and reliable measurement. In this study, we tested the measurement of particle suspension by using a method based on a passive resonance sensor. The relative amounts of dispersing agent and aluminium oxide in the suspension were varied. The studied method yielded signals which depended on the complex permittivity of the suspension. The results indicated that we were able to measure information that can be used as feedback for the suspension preparation process. In addition, the tested instrumentation was simple and robust and thus this method may allow online measurements directly from the industrial processes.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Automation Science and Engineering, Research area: Microsystems, Research area: Measurement Technology and Process Control, Department of Materials Science, Research group: Ceramic materials, Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), Integrated Technologies for Tissue Engineering Research (ITTE), Smart Energy Systems (SES)
Contributors: Salpavaara, T., Järveläinen, M., Seppälä, S., Yli-Hallila, T., Verho, J., Vilkko, M., Lekkala, J., Levänen, E.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 324-330
Publication date: 8 Jun 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Volume: 219
ISSN (Print): 0925-4005
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 7.4 SJR 1.225 SNIP 1.486
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Metals and Alloys, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry, Instrumentation
Keywords: Complex permittivity, Inductive coupling, Passive resonance sensor, Slurry, Suspension

Bibliographical note

ORG=ase,0.5
ORG=mol,0.5

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84930646590

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

PEGylated liposomes as carriers of hydrophobic porphyrins

Sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) (PEGylated liposomes) are applied as effective drug delivery vehicles. Understanding the interactions between hydrophobic compounds and PEGylated membranes is therefore important to determine the effectiveness of PEGylated liposomes for delivery of drugs or other bioactive substances. In this study, we have combined fluorescence quenching analysis (FQA) experiments and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of membrane PEGylation on the location and orientation of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (p-THPP) that has been used in our study as a model hydrophobic compound. First, we consider the properties of p-THPP in the presence of different fluid phosphatidylcholine bilayers that we use as model systems for protein-free cell membranes. Next, we studied the interaction between PEGylated membranes and p-THPP. Our MD simulation results indicated that the arrangement of p-THPP within zwitterionic membranes is dependent on their free volume, and p-THPP solubilized in PEGylated liposomes is localized in two preferred positions: deep within the membrane (close to the center of the bilayer) and in the outer PEG corona (p-THPP molecules being wrapped with the polymer chains). Fluorescence quenching methods confirmed the results of atomistic MD simulations and showed two populations of p-THPP molecules as in MD simulations. Our results provide both an explanation for the experimental observation that PEGylation improves the drug-loading efficiency of membranes and also a more detailed molecular-level description of the interactions between porphyrins and lipid membranes.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Physics, Research area: Computational Physics, Research group: Biological Physics and Soft Matter, Computational Science X (CompX), University of Cambridge, Faculty of Physics and Chemistry, Helsinki University, University of Southern Denmark, Jagiellonian University, Centre for Drug Research, Faculty of Pharmacy
Contributors: Dzieciuch, M., Rissanen, S., Szydłowska, N., Bunker, A., Kumorek, M., Jamróz, D., Vattulainen, I., Nowakowska, M., Róg, T., Kepczynski, M.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 6646-6657
Publication date: 4 Jun 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 119
Issue number: 22
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.335 SNIP 1.058
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84930960276

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Performance testing of iron based thermally sprayed HVOF coatings in a biomass-fired fluidised bed boiler

Managing high temperature corrosion problems in biomass firing boilers has been challenging especially due to high amounts of chemically active compounds, in particular alkali chlorides. Thermally sprayed coatings with high chromium content can offer a solution for protecting low alloyed substrate materials in locations prone to high temperature corrosion. Two thermally sprayed (HVOF - high velocity oxy-fuel) iron based coatings (Fe-27Cr-11Ni-4Mo and Fe-19Cr-9W-7Nb-4Mo) were exposed to biomass boiler conditions for two years. The fluidised bed boiler for district heating used mainly wood-based fuels mixed with small amounts of peat. The coated tubes were located at the hot economiser of the boiler, where the estimated material temperature was about 200. °C maximum. After the exposure the coatings and the carbon steel St35.8 substrate material were analysed with SEM-EDX. It was detected that corrosion due to elements such as chlorine, potassium, zinc, lead and copper had caused severe material wastage in the biomass boiler with relatively low heat exchanger surface temperatures. The low alloyed boiler tubes had suffered severely with a corrosion rate as high as 2. mm/year, whereas dense thermal spray coatings offered excellent protection during the exposure.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Engineering materials science and solutions (EMASS), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Oksa, M., Varis, T., Ruusuvuori, K.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 191-200
Publication date: 25 Jul 2014
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 251
ISSN (Print): 0257-8972
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2014): CiteScore 3.7 SJR 0.983 SNIP 1.652
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Chemistry(all), Condensed Matter Physics, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Surfaces and Interfaces
Keywords: Biomass, Chlorine corrosion, Corrosion protection, High temperature corrosion, HVOF, Thermal spray coating
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84901601150

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of ZnO films with different surface topographies on stainless steel substrate

Zinc oxide films with three types of topographies: needle-like and hexagonal rods and flakes, were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis on stainless steel substrates to investigate their photocatalytic and antibacterial properties. The photocatalytic activity was measured with a methylene blue (MB) discoloration test, whereas a method using bioluminescent whole cell bacterial biosensors enabling the constant monitoring of the amount of living cells on the surfaces was used here to study the antibacterial properties. The results showed that photocatalytic activity was clearly influenced by the surface area, which is in turn dependent on the topography. Moreover, it was found that all the examined films decreased notably the amount of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on the surfaces. Despite significant differences in the surface areas of the studied samples that led to different zinc dissolution rate in aqueous environment, no notable differences in antibacterial activity between the films with different morphologies could be detected. These results are presented and discussed in this paper.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Materials Science, Research group: Ceramic materials, Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Industrial Bioengineering and Applied Organic Chemistry, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Contributors: Heinonen, S., Kannisto, M., Nikkanen, J., Huttunen-Saarivirta, E., Karp, M., Levänen, E.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 842-849
Publication date: 1 Oct 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Thin Solid Films
Volume: 616
ISSN (Print): 0040-6090
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 3.7 SJR 0.639 SNIP 0.863
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Antibacterial, Biosensor cell, Hydrothermal synthesis, Photocatalytic activity, Zinc oxide
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84991648557

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Photoinduced Electron Injection from Zinc Phthalocyanines into Zinc Oxide Nanorods: Aggregation Effects

Phthalocyanines (Pc) are well-known light-harvesting compounds. However, despite the tremendous efforts on phthalocyanine synthesis, the achieved energy conversion efficiencies for Pc-based dye-sensitized solar cells are moderate. To cast light on the factors reducing the conversion efficiency, we have undertaken a time-resolved spectroscopy study of the primary photoinduced reactions at a semiconductor-Pc interface. ZnO nanorods were chosen as a model semiconductor substrate with enhanced specific surface area. The use of a nanostructured oxide surface allows to extend the semiconductor-dye interface with a hole transporting layer (spiro-MeOTAD) in a controlled way, making the studied system closer to a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell. Four zinc phthalocyanines are compared in this study. The compounds are equipped with bulky peripheral groups designed to reduce the self-aggregation of the Pcs. Almost no signs of aggregation can be observed from the absorption spectra of the Pcs assembled on a ZnO surface. Nevertheless, the time-resolved spectroscopy indicates that there are inter-Pc charge separation-recombination processes in the time frame of 1-100 ps. This may reduce the electron injection efficiency into the ZnO by more than 50%, pointing out to a remaining aggregation effect. Surprisingly, the electron injection time does not correlate with the length of the linker connecting the Pc to ZnO. A correlation between the electron injection time and the "bulkiness" of the peripheral groups was observed. This correlation is further discussed with the use of computational modeling of the Pc arrangements on the ZnO surface. (Figure Presented).

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Chemistry & Advanced Materials, Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA)-Nanociencia, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Mersin University, South-Ukrainian National Pedagogical University
Contributors: Virkki, K., Hakola, H., Urbani, M., Tejerina, L., Ince, M., Martínez-Díaz, M. V., Torres, T., Golovanova, V., Golovanov, V., Tkachenko, N. V.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 9594-9605
Publication date: 4 May 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 121
Issue number: 17
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 2.135 SNIP 1.133
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Energy(all), Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020915273

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Photoinduced Electron Transfer in CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Fullerene Hybrids

Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) in CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot (QD) - fullerene (COOH-C<inf>60</inf>) hybrids was studied by the means of time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopy techniques. A series of four QDs with emission in the range 540-630 nm was employed to investigate the dependence of the electron transfer rate on the QD size. Emission of the QDs is quenched upon hybrid formation, and the quenching mechanism is identified as photoinduced electron transfer from the QD to the fullerene moiety due to the fullerene anion signature observed in transient absorption. In order to obtain quantitative information on the ET reaction, several kinetic data analysis techniques were used, including a conventional multiexponential fitting and a maximum entropy method for emission decay analysis, as well as a distributed decay model based on the Poisson distribution of fullerenes in the hybrids. The latter gradually simplifies the interpretation of the transient absorption spectra and indicates that the spectra of QD cations are essentially similar to those of neutral QDs, differing only by a minor decrease in the intensity and broadening. Furthermore, only a minor decrease in the ET rate with the increasing QD size was observed, the time constants being in the range 100-200 ps for all studied QDs. The charge recombination is extended to 10 ns or longer for all hybrids.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Frontier Photonics, Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Supramolecular photochemistry
Contributors: Virkki, K., Demir, S., Lemmetyinen, H., Tkachenko, N. V.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 17561-17572
Publication date: 23 Jul 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 119
Issue number: 31
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.886 SNIP 1.246
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Energy(all)

Bibliographical note

INT=keb,"Demir, Sinem"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84938703282

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Photophysical properties of porphyrin dimer-single-walled carbon nanotube linked systems

Porphyrin dimers were covalently grafted onto electron-accepting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) sidewalls by direct aryl radical addition reaction with an m-or p-phenylene linker with the help of p-p interaction between the porphyrins. A splitting of the porphyrin Soret band and DFT calculations supported the selective formation of the porphyrin dimers on the sidewall of SWNTs. Photoexcitation of the porphyrin dimers on the SWNT resulted in the formation of the exciplex state, which directly decayed to the ground state without yielding the complete charge-separated state. Lifetimes of the porphyrin dimer-SWNT exciplex were longer than that of a porphyrin monomer-SWNT exciplex due to the stabilization by p-electron interaction over two porphyrin rings. In addition, the weaker electronic coupling through the meta-linkage than the para-one may be responsible for the exciplex lifetime of the porphyrin dimer-SWNT with the m-phenylene linker (49 ps) longer than that with the p-phenylene one (24 ps). The results obtained here provide the basic information on the effect of the donor dimerization on the photodynamic behavior of the exciplex state in donor-acceptor linked systems. [Figure presented]

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Chemistry & Advanced Materials, Kyoto Women's University
Contributors: Baek, J., Umeyama, T., Mizuno, S., Tkachenko, N. V., Imahori, H.
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume: 121
Issue number: 39
ISSN (Print): 1932-7447
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 2.135 SNIP 1.133
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Energy(all), Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85032629899

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Photovoltaic properties of low-bandgap (0.7–0.9 eV) lattice-matched GaInNAsSb solar junctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs

We demonstrate single junction GaInNAsSb solar cells with high nitrogen content, i.e. in the range of 5–8%, and bandgap energies close to 0.7 eV grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A good crystalline quality is demonstrated for the entire range of N concentrations. An average external quantum efficiency of 0.45 is demonstrated for GaInNAsSb solar cell with 6.2% N exhibiting a bandgap of 0.78 eV (no antireflection coatings has been applied). The internal quantum efficiency for the cell is 0.65 at E g + 0.2 eV. The solar cells exhibited bandgap-voltage offsets between 0.55 V (for N = 5.3%) and 0.66 V (for N = 7.9%). When used in a six-junction solar cell architecture under AM1.5D illumination, the estimated short-circuit current density corresponding to the 0.78 eV cell is 8.2 mA/cm 2 . Furthermore, using the parameters obtained for the GaInNAsSb junction with 6.2% N, we have estimated that such six-junction solar cell architecture could realistically attain an efficiency of over 50% at 1000 suns concentration.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Physics, Research group: ORC, Research group: Nanophotonics, Microscopy Center
Contributors: Isoaho, R., Aho, A., Tukiainen, A., Aho, T., Raappana, M., Salminen, T., Reuna, J., Guina, M.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 198-203
Publication date: 15 Jun 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume: 195
ISSN (Print): 0927-0248
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 11.6 SJR 1.827 SNIP 1.799
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Dilute nitrides, GaInNAsSb, Molecular beam epitaxy, Multijunction solar cells
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85062810786

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Piezoresistive natural rubber-multiwall carbon nanotube nanocomposite for sensor applications

We explore, both experimentally and theoretically, the possibility to use a composite of natural rubber (NR) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as a piezoresistive tensile sensor. As an essentially new feature relative to the previous work, we have performed a systematic study of the mechanism of the piezoresistance at large deformations in a wide range of MWCNT concentrations and crosslinking degrees of the host rubber material. In qualitative agreement with the previous work, the conductivity of the unstrained NR/MWCNT nanocomposite is shown to be adequately described by the percolation theory with the critical exponent evaluated to ∼2.31. Varying tensile stress-induced strains in the composite has been shown to results in a non-linear electrical response that cannot be described by simple modifications of the percolation theory. In order to explain the observed non-linear dependence of the resistance R of the composite on the strain ε, we have developed a scaling theory that relates this resistance to the structural changes in the conducting MWCNT network caused by deforming the host NR. Based on the obtained results, we discuss the ways of using the highly stretchable conductive elastomer composites as an efficient piezoresistive tensile sensor.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science, Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Vodafone Department of Mobile Communications Systems, University of Münster, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden E.V.
Contributors: Selvan, N. T., Eshwaran, S. B., Das, A., Stöckelhuber, K. W., Wießner, S., Pötschke, P., Nando, G. B., Chervanyov, A. I., Heinrich, G.
Number of pages: 12
Pages: 102-113
Publication date: 1 Mar 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Volume: 239
ISSN (Print): 0924-4247
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 4.8 SJR 0.787 SNIP 1.619
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Instrumentation, Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Keywords: Sensor rubber filler strain nano-composite conductivity
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84955467512

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

PIP2 and Talin Join Forces to Activate Integrin

Integrins are major players in cell adhesion and migration, and malfunctions in controlling their activity are associated with various diseases. Nevertheless, the details of integrin activation are not completely understood, and the role of lipids in the process is largely unknown. Herein, we show using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that the interplay of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and talin may directly alter the conformation of integrin αIIbβ3. Our results provide a new perspective on the role of PIP2 in integrin activation and indicate that the charged PIP2 lipid headgroup can perturb a clasp at the cytoplasmic face of the integrin heterodimer.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Research group: Biological Physics and Soft Matter, BioMediTech, Computational Science X (CompX), Multi-scaled biodata analysis and modelling (MultiBAM), BioMediTech, Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of Southern Denmark, Fimlab Laboratories Ltd
Contributors: Orlowski, A., Kukkurainen, S., Pöyry, A., Rissanen, S., Vattulainen, I., Hytönen, V. P., Róg, T.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 12381-12389
Publication date: 24 Sep 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 26 Aug 2015

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 119
Issue number: 38
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.335 SNIP 1.058
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Bibliographical note

AUX=fys,"Pöyry, Annika"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84942342622

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Plasma etch technologies for the development of ultra-small feature size transistor devices

The advances in information and communication technologies have been largely predicated around the increases in computer processor power derived from the constant miniaturization (and consequent higher density) of individual transistors. Transistor design has been largely unchanged for many years and progress has been around scaling of the basic CMOS device. Scaling has been enabled by photolithography improvements (i.e. patterning) and secondary processing such as deposition, implantation, planarization, etc. Perhaps the most important of the secondary processes is the plasma etch methodology whereby the pattern created by lithography is 'transferred' to the surface via a selective etch to remove exposed material. However, plasma etch technologies face challenges as scaling continues. Maintaining absolute fidelity in pattern transfer at sub-16 nm dimensions will require advances in plasma technology (plasma sources, chamber design, etc) and chemistry (etch gases, flows, interactions with substrates, etc). In this paper, we illustrate some of these challenges by discussing the formation of ultra-small device structures from the directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) where nanopatterns are formed from the micro-phase separation of the system. The polymer pattern is transferred by a double etch procedure where one block is selectively removed and the remaining block acts as a resist pattern for silicon pattern transfer. Data are presented which shows that highly regular nanowire patterns of feature size below 20 nm can be created using etch optimization techniques and in this paper we demonstrate generation of crystalline silicon nanowire arrays with feature sizes below 8 nm. BCP techniques are demonstrated to be applicable from these ultra-small feature sizes to 40 nm dimensions. Etch profiles show rounding effects because etch selectivity in these nanoscale resist patterns is limited and the resist thickness rather low. The nanoscale nature of the topography generated also places high demands on developing new etch processes.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Frontier Photonics, Trinity College Dublin, University College Cork
Contributors: Borah, D., Shaw, M. T., Rasappa, S., Farrell, R. A., O'Mahony, C., Faulkner, C. M., Bosea, M., Gleeson, P., Holmes, J. D., Morris, M. A.
Publication date: 4 May 2011
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 44
Issue number: 17
Article number: 174012
ISSN (Print): 0022-3727
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2011): CiteScore 4.4 SJR 1.266 SNIP 1.424
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Condensed Matter Physics, Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 79954607730

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Polyarginine Interacts More Strongly and Cooperatively than Polylysine with Phospholipid Bilayers

The interactions of two highly positively charged short peptide sequences with negatively charged lipid bilayers were explored by fluorescence binding assays and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The bilayers consisted of mixtures of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids as well as a fluorescence probe that was sensitive to the interfacial potential. The first peptide contained nine arginine repeats (Arg9), and the second one had nine lysine repeats (Lys9). The experimentally determined apparent dissociation constants and Hill cooperativity coefficients demonstrated that the Arg9 peptides exhibited weakly anticooperative binding behavior at the bilayer interface at lower PG concentrations, but this anticooperative effect vanished once the bilayers contained at least 20 mol % PG. By contrast, Lys9 peptides showed strongly anticooperative binding behavior at all PG concentrations, and the dissociation constants with Lys9 were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than with Arg9. Moreover, only arginine-rich peptides could bind to the phospholipid bilayers containing just PC lipids. These results along with the corresponding molecular dynamics simulations suggested two important distinctions between the behavior of Arg9 and Lys9 that led to these striking differences in binding and cooperativity. First, the interactions of the guanidinium moieties on the Arg side chains with the phospholipid head groups were stronger than for the amino group. This helped facilitate stronger Arg9 binding at all PG concentrations that were tested. However, at PG concentrations of 20 mol % or greater, the Arg9 peptides came into sufficiently close proximity with each other so that favorable like-charge pairing between the guanidinium moieties could just offset the long-range electrostatic repulsions. This led to Arg9 aggregation at the bilayer surface. By contrast, Lys9 molecules experienced electrostatic repulsion from each other at all PG concentrations. These insights may help explain the propensity for cell penetrating peptides containing arginine to more effectively cross cell membranes in comparison with lysine-rich peptides.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, Pennsylvania State University, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Division of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Bijenička Cesta 54
Contributors: Robison, A. D., Sun, S., Poyton, M. F., Johnson, G. A., Pellois, J. P., Jungwirth, P., Vazdar, M., Cremer, P. S.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 9287-9296
Publication date: 8 Sep 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B
Volume: 120
Issue number: 35
ISSN (Print): 1520-6106
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 6.1 SJR 1.345 SNIP 1.023
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84986593892

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Prediction of contact condition and surface damage by simulating variable friction coefficient and wear

A simulation method to predict the reliability of clamped metal contacts under cyclic loading is presented. The main idea is to predict the development of contact condition of a joint by simulating a spatially variable coefficient of friction (COF) and wear. Frictional energy dissipation drives the COF evolution rule, and classic Archard's equation is employed as the evolution rule for wear depth. As both the COF and wear evolution are considered, the presented approach is capable of predicting changes in the contact condition over time. The approach is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and is generally applicable to industrial cases. The method is implemented as a subroutine to a FEM solver Abaqus to define a contact formulation in both normal and tangential directions. The subroutine allows full coupling between normal and tangential contact variables, which makes the approach robust also in complex industrial applications. As the effect of wear is described in the contact pressure calculation, there is no need for mesh modification. The presented approach was validated by simulating cylinder-on-plane configuration. The presented method provides similar results obtained with a simulation where geometry is updated due to wear. The results of the case study were qualitatively verified against a bolted joint type fretting experiment. The area of slip after stabilized COF distribution corresponds well with the experimental fretting scars. However, Archard's wear law seems to be limited, at least in partial slip cases, as it overestimates the amount of wear without considering entrapment of wear debris in the contact. A case study of medium speed combustion engine component is presented to show how the simulation method can be used in engine development to ensure reliable contact interfaces.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Tribology and Machine Elements, Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, Research and Development, Wärtsilä Finland
Contributors: Mäntylä, A., Hintikka, J., Frondelius, T., Vaara, J., Lehtovaara, A., Juoksukangas, J.
Number of pages: 11
Publication date: 5 Nov 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Tribology International
Article number: 106054
ISSN (Print): 0301-679X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.536 SNIP 2.373
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Mechanics of Materials, Mechanical Engineering, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Keywords: Contact, Fatigue, Finite element method, Fretting, Friction, Wear
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85075347573

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Printable and flexible macroporous organosilica film with high protein adsorption capacity

An approach for creating a flexible and macroporous silsesquioxane film using phase separation method is described. The porous film was prepared by a simple coating method where sol-gel solution containing polyacrylic acid (PAA) and 1,6-bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane in water was applied on boehmite silica coated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film. After drying, the water soluble PAA template was removed by washing the film with water revealing the porous film. With certain ratios of PAA and water, fully co-continuous pore system with open surface was obtained. Porous films with 3-4 μm thickness were found to be highly flexible. The biocompatibility of the porous film was tested by immobilizing a high affinity biotin-binding chimeric avidin (ChiAVD(I117Y)) into the porous matrix The porous film was found to adsorb higher amounts of functional chimeric avidin compared to the pure PMMA film or a boehmite silica coated PMMA film.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Multi-scaled biodata analysis and modelling (MultiBAM), Univ of Oulu, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, School of Management (JKK)
Contributors: Heikkinen, J. J., Kivimäki, L., Hytönen, V. P., Kulomaa, M. S., Hormi, O. E. O.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 1934-1937
Publication date: 1 Jan 2012
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Thin Solid Films
Volume: 520
Issue number: 6
ISSN (Print): 0040-6090
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2012): CiteScore 3.3 SJR 0.897 SNIP 1.153
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Metals and Alloys, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: Flexible coatings, Phase separation, Porous films, Printable coatings, Protein immobilization, Sol-gel
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84855940396

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Process Parameter Impact on Suspension-HVOF-Sprayed Cr2O3 Coatings

Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is commonly used as an atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) coating from powder feedstock in applications requiring resistance to sliding wear and corrosion, as well as amenability to texturing, e.g., in anilox rolls. Recently, high-velocity oxy-fuel spray methods involving suspension feedstock have been considered an extremely promising alternative to produce denser and more homogeneous chromium oxide coatings with lower as-sprayed surface roughness, higher hardness and potentially superior wear performance compared to conventional APS-sprayed coatings. In this study, the impact of process parameters namely auxiliary air cleaning nozzles and a transverse air curtain on suspension high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed Cr2O3 suspensions is presented. The produced coatings are characterized for their microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance by cavitation erosion. The results reveal the importance of optimized air nozzles and air curtain to achieve a vastly improved coating structure and performance.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Materials Science and Environmental Engineering, Research group: Surface Engineering, Treibacher Industrie AG, University West
Contributors: Kiilakoski, J., Trache, R., Björklund, S., Joshi, S., Vuoristo, P.
Number of pages: 12
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Journal of Thermal Spray Technology
ISSN (Print): 1059-9630
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 4.7 SJR 0.71 SNIP 1.281
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Condensed Matter Physics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Materials Chemistry
Keywords: CrO, influence of spray parameters, mechanical properties, SHVOF, suspension spraying
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85074710199

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Process time importance in the product properties evolvement during extrusion coating of different LDPE grades

Process time in air gap region is one of the most important variables in the coating property development, when the molten polymer is moving from the die exit into the nip region in extrusion coating. Coating property evolvement of different LDPE grades are presented in the paper. The importance of the throughput rate and line speed to the process times is discussed by considering the effect of molecular structure of different polyolefins. The draw do