Assessing Regional Cooperation in Water Services: Finnish Lessons Compared With International Findings

Water services, that is, water supply and wastewater disposal, are traditionally the responsibility of local governments. Many municipalities have joined forces to meet the challenges of increasing water quality requirements, aging infrastructures, and decreasing fiscal resources. Regional cooperation is claimed to generate benefits in various ways, but there are challenges to this assumption. This article assesses the benefits and challenges of regional cooperation through the following categories: economies of scale, socioeconomic and spatial disparities, autonomy and legitimacy, by comparing Finnish experiences with previous research findings. Our assessment concludes that the benefits and challenges of regional cooperation are not straightforward, not only dependent on the local context but also on the level and tradition of cooperation, especially on the degree of organizational autonomy.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Kurki, V., Pietilä, P., Katko, T.
Number of pages: 22
Pages: 368-389
Publication date: 1 Oct 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Public Works Management and Policy
Volume: 21
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 1087-724X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 0.8 SJR 0.198 SNIP 0.475
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous), Sociology and Political Science, Public Administration
Keywords: bilateral agreement, Finland, inter-municipal cooperation, municipal federation, water wholesale
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84984971151

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Bricolage in Collaborative Housing in Finland: Combining Resources for Alternative Housing Solutions

Finnish collaborative housing projects are in an experimental stage. These projects are trying to push the conventional practices of housing production into a new shape in order to realize their schemes in the housing market dominated by large construction companies. This paper aims to shed light on the resident groups’ resources in a context where resident-driven projects are rare. We apply the concept of bricolage to analyse three collaborative housing projects in Finland. Our analysis highlights that the residents refused to enact limitations imposed by the dominant housing market and examines how this was made possible. The cases we studied were successful for two interconnected reasons: (1) because of the capabilities of the residents; and (2) the professional allies they had. We argue that analyses framed by bricolage can help better understand the local contexts with their real and presumed constraints, and offer a possibility for international comparison of collaborative housing.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Architecture, POLEIS - Research Program on the Politics of Space and the Environment
Contributors: Laine, M., Helamaa, A., Kuoppa, J., Alatalo, E.
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 2018

Publication information

Journal: Housing, Theory and Society
ISSN (Print): 1403-6096
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 3.1 SJR 1.24 SNIP 1.305
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Development, Sociology and Political Science, Urban Studies
Keywords: bricolage, Collaborative housing, multi-unit housing production, residents

Bibliographical note

EXT="Alatalo, Elina"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85050374479

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Creating a shared narrative: the use of causal layered analysis to explore value co-creation in a novel service ecosystem

Purpose: The current business environments are increasingly dominated by the networked and systemic conceptualisation of value creation. However, surprisingly, little is known about the explicit and symbolic (inter)relationships between the different actors involved in the value co-creation processes—or about how they impact on the network-specific innovation capabilities. More research is needed to explore and validate the yet theoretical models and concepts of value co-creation in practice. Design/methodology/approach: Theoretically, this study is built on the ideas and concepts of Service-Dominant (S-D) logic. Empirically, the research is based on a set of thematic interviews conducted in a real-life service ecosystem, in the context of university-industry collaboration. The method of causal layered analysis (CLA) is used to both identify and develop constitutive narratives that support the service ecosystem’s long-term strategic planning and value co-creation practices. Originality/value: The use of CLA in exploring the S-D logical view on value co-creation is a unique combination. By studying a highly social, dynamic and interactive process during which different service ecosystem actors first come together to share their values and mental models, and then act upon, significant new knowledge and understanding is offered for all those interested in applying a more systemic approach on service ecosystem development. Practical implications: Given that the use of CLA not only increases the awareness of alternative narratives, but of the abilities to facilitate the desired future(s), new insight and practical advice will be provided for both managers and participants taking part in a service ecosystem.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Industrial and Information Management
Contributors: Ketonen-Oksi, S.
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: European Journal of Futures Research
Volume: 6
Issue number: 1
Article number: 5
ISSN (Print): 2195-4194
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 0.3 SJR 0.13 SNIP 0.119
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Sociology and Political Science, Social Sciences (miscellaneous), Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous), Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management, Management of Technology and Innovation
Keywords: Causal layered analysis, Futures literacy, Service ecosystems, Service systems, Service-dominant logic, Value co-creation
Electronic versions: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85047209467

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Digital athletics in analogue stadiums: Comparing gratifications for engagement between live attendance and online esports spectating

Purpose: Esports (electronic sports) are watched by hundreds of millions of people every year and many esports have overtaken large traditional sports in spectator numbers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate spectating differences between online spectating of esports and live attendance of esports events. This is done in order to further understand attendance behaviour for a cultural phenomenon that is primarily mediated through internet technologies, and to be able to predict behavioural patterns. Design/methodology/approach: This study employs the Motivation Scale for Sports Consumption to investigate the gratifications spectators derive from esports, both from attending tournaments physically and spectating online, in order to explore which factors may explain the esports spectating behaviour. The authors investigate how these gratifications lead into continued spectatorship online and offline, as well as the likelihood of recommending esports to others. The authors employ two data sets, one collected from online spectators (n=888), the other from live attendees (n=221). Findings: The results indicate that online spectators rate drama, acquisition of knowledge, appreciation of skill, novelty, aesthetics and enjoyment of aggression higher than live attendees. Correspondingly, social interaction and physical attractiveness were rated higher by live attendees. Vicarious achievement and physical attractiveness positively predicted intention to attend live sports events while vicarious achievement and novelty positively predicted future online consumption of esports. Finally, vicarious achievement and novelty positively predicted recommending esports to others. Originality/value: During the past years, esports has emerged as a new form of culture and entertainment, that is unique in comparison to other forms of entertainment, as it is almost fully reliant on computer-human interaction and the internet. This study offers one of the first attempts to compare online spectating and live attendance, in order to better understand the phenomenon and the consumers involved. As the growth of esports is predicted to continue in the coming years, further understanding of this phenomenon is pivotal for multiple stakeholder groups.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computing Sciences, Gamification Group
Contributors: Sjöblom, M., Macey, J., Hamari, J.
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN (Print): 1066-2243
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.607 SNIP 2.213
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Communication, Sociology and Political Science, Economics and Econometrics
Keywords: Digital culture, Esports, Online games, Spectating, Sports consumption, Uses and gratifications
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85077534637

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Digital services and youth participation in processes of social change: World Café workshops in Finland

This paper focuses on the role of digital services in empowering youths to participate in social change. The aim is to discover what kind of potential digital services have in creating opportunities for youths of various backgrounds to be active in various processes of change at both the grassroots and policy levels. We also address questions concerning differences between distinct groups in the relationship between ICT proficiency and social participation. The key results of this paper suggest that youths can be engaged to participate by using digital services and becoming active possessors of their human rights. Nevertheless, the role played by power relations and differences in youths' ICT skills must be acknowledged, as they affect opportunities to participate in processes of social change.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: Not Eligible
Organisations: Pervasive Computing, Tampere University, Tampere University
Contributors: Meriläinen, N., Pietilä, I., Varsaluoma, J.
Number of pages: 30
Pages: 1-30
Publication date: 22 Aug 2018
Peer-reviewed: Unknown
Event: Paper presented at European Consortium for Political Research General Conference, Hamburg, Germany.
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Human-Computer Interaction, Sociology and Political Science
Keywords: youth participation, processes of social change, digital services, human rights, obligations, legislative processes, user experiences, digital accessibility

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractScientific

Disentangling the factors driving electronic word-of-mouth use through a configurational approach

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how different combinations of the subdimensions of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) information quality (consisting of its accuracy, completeness, relevance, timeliness, and sidedness) may affect consumers' eWOM use behavior from a configurational approach. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a synthesis of past literature, five precursors of eWOM use were considered. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was employed to understand the configurations that lead to travel-related eWOM use. The study was conducted with 311 consumers from an online travel service company. Findings: Findings identified six solutions that explain eWOM use. EWOM accuracy, completeness, and sidedness are found to be core conditions reinforcing consumers' use of eWOM in combination with different peripheral conditions, including the subdimensions of eWOM information quality and the traits of the consumers (such as social media use time and gender). Practical implications: Factors related to eWOM information quality and traits of the consumers, when considered in combination, predict eWOM use behavior in particular sets of conditions. Originality/value: This work enriches the eWOM literature by providing an in-depth understanding of eWOM use from a configuration perspective. Configuration analysis serves as a better tool for explaining the complex relationships among variables than a regression analysis approach does. Additionally, in response to the need to move beyond multiple regression analysis to algorithmic approaches, this study shifts the emphasis from a symmetric paradigm to an asymmetric perspective for data analysis focused on eWOM use.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Information and Knowledge Management, Central China Normal University, Aalto University
Contributors: Wang, P., Li, H., Liu, Y.
Number of pages: 19
Pages: 925-943
Publication date: 23 Feb 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: INTERNET RESEARCH
Volume: 30
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 1066-2243
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Communication, Sociology and Political Science, Economics and Econometrics
Keywords: Configuration analysis, eWOM use, FsQCA, Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85084927161

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

eSports, skins and loot boxes: Participants, practices and problematic behaviour associated with emergent forms of gambling

Twenty years since the Internet transformed gambling products and services, the convergence of online games and gambling has initiated a new means of consuming Internet-based media. Gambling specifically connected to eSports is a significant development, not only offering a new avenue for existing gambling products to be inserted into gaming media but also affording several novel experiences (e.g. skins and loot boxes). This study assesses participation rates and demographic characteristics of eSports spectators who gamble via an international online survey (N = 582). The sample highlighted the prevalence of young, often under-age, males in eSports-related gambling activities. Participation in gambling, and gambling-like activities, was found to be 67%, with rates of problematic and potentially problematic gambling in the sample being 50.34%. Finally, increased gambling is associated with increased spectating of eSports. Although the results are not generalisable to the wider population, they suggest a need for increased attention, from academia and regulators, regarding newly emergent gambling behaviours in contemporary digital culture.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Pervasive Computing
Contributors: Macey, J., Hamari, J.
Pages: 20-41
Publication date: Jan 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 1 Jul 2018

Publication information

Journal: New Media and Society
Volume: 21
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 1461-4448
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 8.8 SJR 2.964 SNIP 3.187
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Communication, Sociology and Political Science
Keywords: eSports, free-to-play, gambling, gamification, loot boxes, problem gambling, skins gambling, video games

Bibliographical note

DUPL=44133672

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85049969806

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Evolution of Community-Managed Water Supply Projects From 1994 to the 2010s in Ethiopia

This article discusses the evolution of community-managed projects (CMPs) along with the global community-based management of water supply and sanitation services since the 1960s, particularly the evolution of Ethiopian water resources development in the last century. The study was conducted with intensive reviews of journals, reports, project documents, and discussions with the people involved in CMP implementation, including many Ethiopian government officials. The article presents the various development phases of the water and sanitation sector in Ethiopia together with national and global influences. Currently, in the 2010s, the CMP financing mechanisms and the national development of water supply and sanitation are more organized and integrated, and are in the stage of scaling up. The recently agreed national water, sanitation, and hygiene strategic framework is expected to have significant impacts on the rural water supply and sanitation development in Ethiopia.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Life Cycle Effectiveness of the Built Environment (LCE@BE), Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Community-Led Accelerated WASH (COWASH) Project
Contributors: Behailu, B. M., Suominen, A., Katko, T. S.
Number of pages: 22
Pages: 379-400
Publication date: 22 Oct 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 13 Jul 2015

Publication information

Journal: Public Works Management and Policy
Volume: 20
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 1087-724X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 0.9 SJR 0.242 SNIP 0.41
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous), Sociology and Political Science, Public Administration
Keywords: community-managed projects (CMP), Ethiopia, evolution, sustainability, water sector reforms
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84942086997

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Examining the rhythms of ‘urban elements’ on walking and driving routes in the city

The article follows Kevin Lynch’s renowned formulation of ‘urban elements’ to examine the mobilities, experiences and materialities on ordinary routes in the city. Utilizing route narratives and participant-produced visual data, the article focuses on various identifiable micro-temporalities and mobility rhythms on repeated walking and driving routes, building on Henri Lefebvre’s notion of ‘rhythmanalysis’. The article examines how a framework built around rhythm and urban elements can add to the analysis of contemporary urban sites from the perspectives of situated mobile contexts, noting sequences and polyrhythmia as central temporal characteristics in the body‒environment relations.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Architecture
Contributors: Tartia, J.
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 2018

Publication information

Journal: Mobilities
Volume: 13
Issue number: 6
ISSN (Print): 1745-0101
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 5.1 SJR 1.581 SNIP 1.541
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Demography, Geography, Planning and Development, Sociology and Political Science
Keywords: everyday life, mobile methods, mobilities, Rhythm, rhythmanalysis, urban elements
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85051998023

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Fame and fortune, or just fun? A study on why people create content on video platforms

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the motivations behind online video content creation on services such as YouTube and Twitch. These activities, performed by private individuals online, have become increasingly monetized and professionalised through the accessible tools provided by video sharing services, which has presented a noteworthy manifestation of the increasing merger of the work and leisure within digital environments and the emergence of a hybrid form of work and play, playbour. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected using an online survey of 377 video content creators and it was analysed via structural equation modelling. Findings: The findings of the study indicate that although the practice of video content creation is becoming more commercialised and professionalised, the extrinsic motivations, often associated with work (e.g. income, prestige), remain less significant drivers for content creation than intrinsic motivations (e.g. enjoyment, socialisation), which are associated with leisure activities. Originality/value: This study offers insight into how the authors have begun to reorganise the position in the new digital labour culture, where monotonous tasks are increasingly automated, allowing room for intrinsically driven playful labour to develop within the leisure activities.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computing Sciences, Turun yliopisto
Contributors: Törhönen, M., Sjöblom, M., Hassan, L., Hamari, J.
Publication date: 31 Jul 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: INTERNET RESEARCH
ISSN (Print): 1066-2243
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 7.9 SJR 1.607 SNIP 2.213
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Communication, Sociology and Political Science, Economics and Econometrics
Keywords: Motivation, Playbour, Prosumer, Streaming, Twitch, YouTube
Electronic versions: 

Bibliographical note

INT=comp,"Hassan, Lobna"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85071565101

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Features of Water Cooperatives: A Comparative Study of Finland and Kenya

There are several ways of arranging rural water supply. One of these is through water cooperatives that have been established to provide water supply, irrigation, and/or sewerage services. Water cooperatives are found in developed countries such as Finland, Denmark, Austria, Canada, and United States, and in developing countries in South America, such as Bolivia and Chile. Water cooperatives or their equivalent organizations that exist in Kenya are called self-help water projects. Yet, surprisingly little attention has been paid to this option even in countries with rich tradition of cooperatives in other sectors. In this study, Finland and Kenya were selected for a comparative analysis of the identified features of water cooperatives. Best practices observed in the features with differences could be shared between the two countries.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering, University of Nairobi
Contributors: Arvonen, V., Kibocha, S. N., Katko, T. S., Pietilä, P.
Number of pages: 22
Pages: 356-377
Publication date: 1 Oct 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Public Works Management and Policy
Volume: 22
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 1087-724X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 1 SJR 0.307 SNIP 0.724
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous), Sociology and Political Science, Public Administration
Keywords: community, rural water supply, self-help water projects, water user associations

Bibliographical note

INT=RAK, "Arvonen, Vesa"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85029710889

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Gameful civic engagement: A review of the literature on gamification of e-participation

With increased digitalization, governments and public institutes became potentially better able to practice fuller and wider ranges of democratic governance through e.g., e-participation. E-participation, as any means of engagement with the common good, is, however, a difficult area of human motivation as it can be seen to exist outside the common hurdles of the everyday life and where the effects of participation are often invisible or take a long time to materialize. Recent trends of digitalization, such as gamification; a popular approach for stimulating motivation, have been proposed as remedies to foster e-participation. A plethora of applications and research has emerged related to gamified e-participation. However, there is currently a dearth in our knowledge of how gamification is being applied, researched or what its possible positive and negative outcomes can be. This study employed a systematic literature review approach in order to summarize research and findings on gamified e-participation. 66 papers were reviewed, the majority of which indicated that gamified e-participation is linked to increased engagement, motivation, civic learning and enjoyment amongst other outcomes. Nonetheless, question remains as to ethical and inclusive gamification, for which, this research provides directions for future research.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computing Sciences, Research group: TUT Game Lab, University of Turku
Contributors: Hassan, L., Hamari, J.
Number of pages: 21
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: GOVERNMENT INFORMATION QUARTERLY
Volume: 37
Issue number: 3
Article number: 101461
ISSN (Print): 0740-624X
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Sociology and Political Science, Library and Information Sciences, Law
Keywords: Civic engagement, E-participation, Games, Gamification, Governance, Policy-making
Electronic versions: 

Bibliographical note

INT=comp,"Hassan, Lobna"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85082743323

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Identifying weak ties from publicly available social media data in an event

The concept of weak ties was introduced by Granovetter through the seminal paper titled "Strength of weak ties". Since then the role of weak ties in general and their specific role as occupying the structural hole has been explored in many different fields. In this study, we identify actual or potential weak ties using publicly available social media data in the context of an event. Our case study environment is community managers' online discussions in social media in connection to the yearly-organized Community Manager Appreciation Day (CMAD 2016) event in Finland. We were able to identify potential weak ties using the conversation based structural holes, making use of social network analysis methods (like clustering) and content analysis in the context of events. We add to the understanding of and useful data sources for the Strength of weak ties theory originated from Granovetter, and developed further by other researchers. Our approach may be used in future to make more sophisticated conference recommendation systems, and significantly automate the data extraction for making useful contact recommendations from them for conference participants.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Information Management and Logistics, Research group: Novi, Department of Mathematics, Research group: MAT Intelligent Information Systems Laboratory, Managing digital industrial transformation (mDIT), Copenhagen Business School
Contributors: Gupta, J. P., Menon, K., Kärkkäinen, H., Huhtamäki, J., Mukkamala, R. R., Hussain, A., Vatrapu, R., Jussila, J., Pirkkalainen, H.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 11-19
Publication date: 17 Oct 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: AcademicMindtrek '16 Proceedings of the 20th International Academic Mindtrek Conference
Publisher: ACM
ISBN (Electronic): 978-1-4503-4367-1
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Computational Theory and Mathematics, Sociology and Political Science
Keywords: weak ties, social media

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Importance of Knowledge Management at Water Utilities

Water utilities face continuous challenges with the changes of operational environment, aging personnel, and related tacit knowledge of employees. This article explores knowledge management at one Finnish utility and points out knowledge sharing in daily tasks. It highlights how employees interpret knowledge and tacit knowledge and their sharing. Qualitative inquiry was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 61 employees (65% of personnel) in 2004 and 33 in 2013 (47%). Knowledge management was regarded as a personal, individually controlled property. Value was one obstacle to the unwillingness to share knowledge and tacit knowledge. Positive change between 2004 and 2013 was seen in the interpretation of tacit knowledge: being something that is recorded in your own head only. Tacit knowledge was daily shared with the closest coworkers. As a strategic asset, knowledge should be managed at water and wastewater utilities as further development needs crucial understanding of previous procedures and practices.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Satakunta University of Applied Sciences
Contributors: Sandelin, S. K., Hukka, J. J., Katko, T. S.
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Public Works Management and Policy
ISSN (Print): 1087-724X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 1.9 SJR 0.448 SNIP 1.183
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous), Sociology and Political Science, Public Administration
Keywords: constraints, Finland, knowledge sharing, tacit knowledge, water utility

Bibliographical note

EXT="Sandelin, Sirpa K."

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85071646574

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Scalable optimization of neighbor embedding for visualization

Neighbor embedding (NE) methods have found their use in data visualization but are limited in big data analysis tasks due to their O(n2) complexity for n data samples. We demonstrate that the obvious approach of subsampling produces inferior results and propose a generic approximated optimization technique that reduces the NE optimization cost to O(n log n). The technique is based on realizing that in visualization the embedding space is necessarily very low-dimensional (2D or 3D), and hence efficient approximations developed for n-body force calculations can be applied. In gradient-based NE algorithms the gradient for an individual point decomposes into "forces" exerted by the other points. The contributions of close-by points need to be computed individually but far-away points can be approximated by their "center of mass", rapidly computable by applying a recursive decomposition of the visualization space into quadrants. The new algorithm brings a significant speed-up for medium-size data, and brings "big data" within reach of visualization.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Research Community on Data-to-Decision (D2D), Aalto University, University of Helsinki
Contributors: Yang, Z., Peltonen, J., Kaski, S.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 786-794
Publication date: 2013

Host publication information

Title of host publication: 30th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2013
Publisher: International Machine Learning Society (IMLS)
Edition: PART 1
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Human-Computer Interaction, Sociology and Political Science
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84897521276

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Significance of affect and ethics in applying conservation standards: The practices of flying squirrel surveyors

We examine human-animal encounters as the generative source of affective knowing and learning to study the role of affect in the implementation of nature conservation. The study is based on an ethnographic approach following the embodied practices of biological field surveyors working with Siberian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans) in land use planning in Finland. The case is characterized by radical uncertainties due to the elusive life of flying squirrels, the strict conservation standard of the EU, and the pressure of urban development. The surveyors can use only indirect clues to detect these nocturnal animals, but are required to produce accurate and unambiguous ecological knowledge to planners. We found that affective learning enables knowing and increases the reliability of knowledge in such conditions. Affective learning results from alternation between constant encountering of clues and changing intensities that produce feeling states and a sense of the forest where the animals live. Ethical consideration and personal differences are important in affective learning and shape the surveyors as participants in standard development. Finally we discuss the possible implications of affective learning for standard design in nature conservation.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Life Cycle Effectiveness of the Built Environment (LCE@BE)
Contributors: Nygren, N. V., Jokinen, A.
Pages: 79-90
Publication date: May 2013
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: GEOFORUM
Volume: 46
ISSN (Print): 0016-7185
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2013): CiteScore 4 SJR 1.828 SNIP 1.756
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Sociology and Political Science
Keywords: Affect, Ecological knowledge, Ethics, Land use planning, Nature conservation, Standard
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84873496142

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Situated knowledge-situated legitimacy: Consequences of citizen participation in local environmental governance

This article examines how situated knowledge produced by citizens affects the construction and understanding of legitimacy in local environmental governance. By scrutinising a case from Finland where local citizens decided to take lake restoration in their own hands, we demonstrate how legitimacy is constructed in a specific local context. The main concepts used to interpret this dynamic are situated knowledge (Haraway, 1988; Lang, 2011) and situated legitimacy (Connelly, Richardson, & Miles, 2006). The paper shows how the local traditions together with the historical and social context have distinct effects on the construction of situated knowledge. Further, situated knowledge not only frames the boundaries and possibilities of local action, but also shapes the interpretations of legitimacy. Approaching the construction of knowledge and legitimacy from this perspective challenges the customary understanding of context in participatory practices and, as we suggest, has also the ability to improve these processes.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Institute of Society and Space (SOCIS)
Contributors: Leino, H., Peltomaa, J.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 159-168
Publication date: Jun 2012
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: POLICY AND SOCIETY
Volume: 31
Issue number: 2
ISSN (Print): 1449-4035
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2012): CiteScore 1.8 SJR 0.314 SNIP 0.483
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Sociology and Political Science, Political Science and International Relations, Public Administration
Keywords: Citizen participation, Environmental governance, Situated knowledge, Situated legitimacy
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84862014074

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Water Supply and Sanitation in a Green Economy Society: The Case of Finland

A green economy specifically considers the welfare of the environment and is closely aligned with sustainable development—in both, the use of natural resources should be less than their natural production. In this article, the concept of a green economy is discussed from the viewpoint of water services, a crucial part of a sustainable society, with the objective of enhancing knowledge about sustainable and resilient water services that will meet society’s future demands. Drawing from a literature review and a stakeholder workshop attended by 68 experts, it seeks to answer three research questions: (a) What are appropriate and sustainable urban water supply and sanitation policies for a society that is adopting the basic principles of a green economy? (b) What should be the role of water supply and sanitation in a green and circular economy and what are the current challenges to meeting this objective? and (c) What actions are needed in the Finnish water and sanitation services (WSS) sector to effectively meet the requirements of a green and circular economy? The results are applied to the specific case of Finland, and recommendations and conclusions for the Finnish society and its water services are presented.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Finnish Environment Institute
Contributors: Laitinen, J., Antikainen, R., Hukka, J. J., Katko, T. S.
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Public Works Management and Policy
ISSN (Print): 1087-724X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2019): CiteScore 1.9 SJR 0.448 SNIP 1.183
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous), Sociology and Political Science, Public Administration
Keywords: green economy, sanitation, sustainable development, water services, water supply

Bibliographical note

EXT="Laitinen, Jyrki"

Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85066303562

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

What is eSports and why do people watch it?

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate why do people spectate eSports on the internet. The authors define eSports (electronic sports) as “a form of sports where the primary aspects of the sport are facilitated by electronic systems; the input of players and teams as well as the output of the eSports system are mediated by human-computer interfaces.” In more practical terms, eSports refer to competitive video gaming (broadcasted on the internet). Design/methodology/approach: The study employs the motivations scale for sports consumption which is one of the most widely applied measurement instruments for sports consumption in general. The questionnaire was designed and pre-tested before distributing to target respondents (n=888). The reliability and validity of the instrument both met the commonly accepted guidelines. The model was assessed first by examining its measurement model and then the structural model. Findings: The results indicate that escapism, acquiring knowledge about the games being played, novelty and eSports athlete aggressiveness were found to positively predict eSport spectating frequency. Originality/value: During recent years, eSports (electronic sports) and video game streaming have become rapidly growing forms of new media in the internet driven by the growing provenance of (online) games and online broadcasting technologies. Today, hundreds of millions of people spectate eSports. The present investigation presents a large study on gratification-related determinants of why people spectate eSports on the internet. Moreover, the study proposes a definition for eSports and further discusses how eSports can be seen as a form of sports.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: TUT Game Lab, Pervasive Computing, Human-Centered Technology (IHTE), Gamification Group, Turun Yliopisto/Turun Biomateriaalikeskus
Contributors: Hamari, J., Sjöblom, M.
Number of pages: 22
Pages: 211-232
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: INTERNET RESEARCH
Volume: 27
Issue number: 2
ISSN (Print): 1066-2243
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 5.9 SJR 1.645 SNIP 2.092
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Communication, Sociology and Political Science, Economics and Econometrics
Keywords: eSports, Games, Media consumption, Online video, Streaming, Uses and gratifications
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85016010828

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

What predicts esports betting? A study on consumption of video games, esports, gambling and demographic factors

The parallel media related to sports, gaming and gambling are expanding, exemplified by the emergence of esports and game-related gambling (e.g. loot boxes, esports betting). The increasing convergence of these phenomena means it is essential to understand how they interact. Given the expanding consumer base of esports, it is important to know how individuals’ backgrounds and consumption of game media may lead to esports betting. This study employs survey data (N = 1368) to investigate how demographics, alongside consumption of video games, esports and gambling can predict esports betting activity. Results reveal that both spectating esports and participation in general forms of gambling are associated with increased esports betting, no direct association was observed between the consumption of video games and esports betting. Findings suggest that while games may act as a vehicle for gambling content, highlighting the convergence of gaming and gambling, there is no intrinsic aspect which directly encourages gambling behaviours.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Computing Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Turku
Contributors: Macey, J., Abarbanel, B., Hamari, J.
Publication date: 2020
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: New Media and Society
ISSN (Print): 1461-4448
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Communication, Sociology and Political Science
Keywords: Betting, consumption, convergence, digital media, esports, gambling, gaming, MSSC, video games
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85081570832

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review