Variation of CPTu-based transformation models for undrained shear strength of Finnish clays

The determination of a design soil property may include multiple sources of uncertainty. One of the sources originates from transformation model used to evaluate soil parameters when they are not measured directly. This study focuses on the transformation uncertainty related to three different transformation models used in evaluation of undrained shear strength from CPTu borings. The used correlation models are common models found in literature and calibrated at Tampere University. The CPTu data used in this study was taken from Knuuti and Länsivaara [2019. Variation of Measured CPTu Data. ISGSR], and it consisted of four different soft clay sites in Finland. The transformation uncertainty was calculated for each transformation model at each site. Moreover, every CPTu boring was analysed separately. The results showed that the transformation uncertainty was lowest for models based on the net cone resistance (COV = 0.033–0.084) and pore pressure (COV = 0.024–0.085). For the third model, the uncertainty was little higher as it included more uncertainty in the initial parameters. This suggests that the transformation models based on net cone resistanse (qNET) and pore pressure (u2) could be more suitable for practice.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Knuuti, M., Länsivaara, T.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 262-270
Publication date: 2 Oct 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Georisk
Volume: 13
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 1749-9518
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Civil and Structural Engineering, Building and Construction, Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality, Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology, Geology
Keywords: coefficient of variation, correlation models, CPTu, reliability, statistics, undrained shear strength
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85074297150

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Temporal variation in indoor transfer of dirt-associated environmental bacteria in agricultural and urban areas

An agricultural environment and exposure to diverse environmental microbiota has been suggested to confer protection against immune-mediated disorders. As an agricultural environment may have a protective role, it is crucial to determine whether the limiting factors in the transfer of environmental microbiota indoors are the same in the agricultural and urban environments. We explored how sampling month, garden diversity and animal ownership affected the indoor-transfer of environmental microbial community. We collected litter from standardized doormats used for 2 weeks in June and August 2015 and February 2016 and identified bacterial phylotypes using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In February, the diversity and richness of the whole bacterial community and the relative abundance of environment-associated taxa were reduced, whereas human-associated taxa and genera containing opportunistic pathogens were enriched in the doormats. In summer, the relative abundances of several taxa associated previously with beneficial health effects were higher, particularly in agricultural areas. Surprisingly, the importance of vegetation on doormat microbiota was more observable in February, which may have resulted from snow cover that prevented contact with microbes in soil. Animal ownership increased the prevalence of genera Bacteroides and Acinetobacter in rural doormats. These findings underline the roles of season, living environment and lifestyle in the temporal variations in the environmental microbial community carried indoors. As reduced contact with diverse microbiota is a potential reason for immune system dysfunction, the results may have important implications in the etiology of immune-mediated, non-communicable diseases.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Architecture, University of Helsinki, Tampere University, University of Tampere
Contributors: Hui, N., Parajuli, A., Puhakka, R., Grönroos, M., Roslund, M. I., Vari, H. K., Selonen, V. A., Yan, G., Siter, N., Nurminen, N., Oikarinen, S., Laitinen, O., Rajaniemi, J., Hyöty, H., Sinkkonen, A.
Number of pages: 9
Publication date: 7 Aug 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Environment International
Volume: 132
Issue number: November 2019
Article number: 105069
ISSN (Print): 0160-4120
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Environmental Science (miscellaneous), Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
Electronic versions: 

Bibliographical note

dupl=49848283

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Investigation and geotechnical characterization of Perniö clay, Finland

Understanding the behavior of soft sensitive clays is a key aspect of geotechnical design, especially in those regions where constructions are planned in marine clay areas. In Finland, one of the major geotechnical issues is the stability and deformation of the railway embankments located on soft soil deposits. The Tampere University of Technology (TUT) and the Finnish Transport Agency (FTA) have been carrying out a research project aiming to a better understanding of strength and deformation properties of Finnish soft clays. As a part of this project, a detailed site investigation was conducted at Perniö site in Western Finland. This paper presents the details of the geotechnical investigation, including field testing, sampling operations, and the laboratory testing program. In particular, an open drive tube sampler with 132 mm diameter, designed at TUT, was used to collect high quality samples. For comparison, samples were also taken using the conventional piston samplers and Sherbrooke Mini-block sampler. Field testing included piezocone, vane shear, and seismic piezocone. Laboratory testing consisted of index, consolidation, triaxial and simple shear tests. A comprehensive study of all these data is presented in a framework to describe Perniö soft clay.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Foundation Structures, Civil Engineering, Universita Politecnica delle Marche
Contributors: Di Buò, B., D'Ignazio, M., Selänpää, J., Haikola, M., Länsivaara, T., Di Sante, M.
Pages: 591–616
Publication date: 5 Aug 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: AIMS Geosciences
Volume: 5
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 2471-2132
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Vesihuollon instituutiot vaativat taitavaa jalkapallopeliä

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D1 Article in a trade journal
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Inha, L., Katko, T. S., Rajala, R.
Number of pages: 3
Pages: 38-40
Publication date: Jun 2019
Peer-reviewed: Unknown

Publication information

Journal: Rakennustekniikka
Volume: 75
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 0033-913X
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional

Vesihuolto yhdyskuntien ympäristön turvaajana: uskomuksia ja todellisuuksia

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D1 Article in a trade journal
Organisations: Research group: Capacity Development of Water and Environmental Services CADWES, Civil Engineering
Contributors: Katko, T. S., Inha, L., Rajala, R.
Publication date: May 2019
Peer-reviewed: Unknown

Publication information

Journal: Ympäristökasvatus
Issue number: 2
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional

Numerical modeling of rock failure under dynamic loading with polygonal elements

Polygonal finite elements are gaining an increasing attention in the compu-
tational mechanics literature, but their application in rock mechanics is very
rare. This paper deals with numerical modeling of rock failure under dynamic
loading based on polygonal finite elements. For this end, a damage-viscoplastic
constitutive model for rock based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion with the
Rankine criterion as a tensile cutoff is employed and implemented with the
polygonal finite element method. Moreover, the mineral mesostructure or rock
is described by randomly mapping groups of polygonal elements representing
the constituent minerals into a global mesh and assigning these groups with the
corresponding mineral material properties. The performance of the polygonal
elements is compared with that of the linear and quadratic triangular and bilin-
ear quadrilateral elements in numerical simulations of controlled shear band
formation under uniaxial compression and lateral splitting failure in the dog-
bone tension test. Numerical simulations of uniaxial tension and compression
tests as well as dynamic Brazilian disc test under increasing loading rates demonstrate that the present approach predicts the correct failure modes as well as the dynamic increase in strength of rock.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Israel Institute of Technology (Technion)
Contributors: Saksala, T., Jabareen, M.
Pages: 2056-2074
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics
Volume: 43
Issue number: 12
ISSN (Print): 0363-9061
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Coarse-Grained Rock: A Mesoscopic Numerical Study

A numerical study on the strain rate sensitivity of coarse-grained rock fracture under dynamic loading is presented. For this purpose, the embedded discontinuity finite element method is employed as a numerical tool. Moreover, a mesoscopic description of grain boundary-grain interior structure of rock is given. Thereby, the present approach is able to account for inter- and intragranular failure types of rock. The numerical simulations carried out here corroborate the conception that in direct tension the dynamic increase of tensile strength of rock is a real material property. Moreover, the simulations agree
with the hypothesis that in uniaxial compression the dynamic increase of compressive strength is a structural effect due to lateral inertia. Finally, the numerical simulations of the dynamic Brazilian disc test suggest that structural effects also contribute to the dynamic increase in the apparent indirect tensile strength.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Saksala, T.
Pages: 3229–3240
Publication date: 2019
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering
Volume: 52
Issue number: 9
ISSN (Print): 0723-2632
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Tierakenteen rasittuminen yli 76 tonnin HCT-yhdistelmien koekuormituksissa vuosina 2015 - 2017: Liikenneviraston tutkimuksia ja selvityksiä 63/2018

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D5 Text book, professional manual or guide or a dictionary
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions, Roadscanners Ltd
Contributors: Vuorimies, N., Kalliainen, A., Rossi, J., Kolisoja, P., Varin, P., Saarenketo, T.
Number of pages: 115
Publication date: Dec 2018

Publication information

Publisher: Liikennevirasto
ISBN (Electronic): 978-952-317-652-2
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Book/ReportBookScientific

Numerical modelling of thermal spallation of rock

This paper presents a numerical study on thermal spallation of rock. In the present context, thermal spallation refers to fragmentation of rock surface material when subjected to rapid external heating. For modelling the rock fracture in thermal spallation, an embedded discontinuity finite element approach is chosen. In the present implementation, a displacement discontinuity (crack) is embedded perpendicular to the first principal direction in a CST element upon violation of the Rankine criterion. The heating due to mechanical dissipation is neglected as insignificant in comparison to the external heat flux. Thereby, the underlying thermo-mechanical problem becomes uncoupled the only input from the thermal part to the mechanical part being thermal strains. This problem is solved with explicit time marching using the mass scaling to speed up the solution. A thermal spallation problem of a rock sample under axisymmetry is simulated as a numerical example. Different heat flux intensities are tested to demonstrate the capability of the method.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Structural Mechanics
Contributors: Saksala, T.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 1567-1574
Publication date: Nov 2018

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of XII Argentine Congress on Computational Mechanics (MECOM2018)

Publication series

Name: Mecánica Computacional
Volume: 36
No.: 48
ISSN (Electronic): 2591-3522

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Nysse tulee - Tampere3 nimittäin

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D1 Article in a trade journal
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions
Contributors: Kolisoja, P.
Number of pages: 2
Pages: 27-28
Publication date: Oct 2018
Peer-reviewed: Unknown

Publication information

Journal: Geofoor
Issue number: 48
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional

Vertical profiles of lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration measured with a drone in an urban street canyon (MP-17)

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Physics, Research group: The Instrumentation, Emissions, and Atmospheric Aerosols Group, Research area: Aerosol Physics, Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY), Aeromon Ltd., Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki
Contributors: Kuuluvainen, H., Poikkimäki, M., Järvinen, A., Kuula, J., Irjala, M., Dal Maso, M., Keskinen, J., Timonen, H., Niemi, J., Rönkkö, T.
Pages: 73
Publication date: 18 Jun 2018
Peer-reviewed: Unknown
Event: Paper presented at Aerosol Technology 2018, Bilbao, Spain.

Bibliographical note

Conference abstract and poster

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractScientific

Identifying criteria for environmental risk assessment models at different stage-gates of nano-material/product innovation considering requirements of various stakeholders (TH083)

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Physics, Research area: Aerosol Physics, Research group: The Instrumentation, Emissions, and Atmospheric Aerosols Group
Contributors: Sørensen, S. N., Hansen, S. F., Baun, A., Spurgeon, D., Matzke, M., Schirmer, K., Burkard, M., Dal Maso, M., Poikkimäki, M., Verschoor, A., Quik, J., Peijnenburg, W., Wigger, H., Nowack, B.
Publication date: 17 May 2018
Peer-reviewed: Unknown
Event: Paper presented at SETAC EUROPE 28th Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy.

Bibliographical note

Conference abstract

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractScientific

Numerical modelling of fracture processes in thermal shock weakened rock

This paper presents some preliminary results of a research project aiming at the simulation of thermal shock assisted percussive drilling. In the present study, a numerical model for transient thermal shock induced damage in rock is presented. This model includes a rock mesostructure description accounting for different mineral properties and a thermo-mechanical constitutive model based on embedded discontinuity finite elements. In the numerical simulations, the thermal shock induced damge process is first simulated. Then the uniaxial
compression test on thermally affected numerical rock samples is carried out. The effect of thermal shock is demonstrated by comparison to uniaxial compression test simulation on intact rock. The results show that the thermal-shock assisted rock breakage is a feasible idea to be extended to percussive drilling as well.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Pressacco, M., Saksala, T.
Pages: 883-888
Publication date: May 2018

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Geomechanics and Geodynamics of Rock Masses, Volume 1 Proceedings of the 2018 European Rock Mechanics Symposium
Publisher: CRC Press
Editor: Litvinenko, V.
ISBN (Electronic): 9780429867729

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Numerical modelling of rock fracture with a Hoek-Brown viscoplastic-damage model implemented with polygonal finite elements

In the present paper, the rock mineral structure is described as a Voronoi diagram where the Voronoi cells are polygonal finite elements. The minerals constituting the rock are represented by random clusters of polygonal finite elements. Rock fracture is described in the continuum sense by using a damage-viscoplasticity model based on the Hoek-Brown criterion. Due to the asymmetry of the tension and compression behavior of rocks, separate scalar damage variables, driven by viscoplastic strain, are employed in tension and compression. The system equation of motion are solved by explicit time marching since the final aim of this research project is to model transient problems with contact loading (such as percussive rock drilling). In the numerical examples, the capabilities of the present numerical approach are demonstrated. Specifically, uniaxial
tension and compression tests of a numerical rock sample are simulated under plane strain conditions. It is shown that the present method can capture the salient features, including the stress-strain response and the failure modes, of typical rock behavior in these constitutive tests.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Saksala, T.
Pages: 903-908
Publication date: May 2018

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Geomechanics and Geodynamics of Rock Masses, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 2018 European Rock Mechanics Symposium
Publisher: CRC Press
Editor: Litvinenko, V.
ISBN (Electronic): 9780429461774

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Vertical profiles of lung deposited surface area concentration of particulate matter measured with a drone in an urban street canyon

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Physics, Research group: The Instrumentation, Emissions, and Atmospheric Aerosols Group, Research area: Aerosol Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY), Aeromon Ltd., Aeromon Ltd, Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute
Contributors: Kuuluvainen, H., Poikkimäki, M., Järvinen, A., Irjala, M., Dal Maso, M., Niemi, J., Timonen, H., Keskinen, J., Rönkkö, T.
Publication date: 13 Mar 2018
Peer-reviewed: Unknown
Event: Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Air Quality - Science and Application, Barcelona, Spain.

Bibliographical note

Conference abstract and presentation

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractScientific

3D finite elements modelling of percussive rock drilling: Estimation of rate of penetration based on multiple impact simulations with a commercial drill bit

This paper deals with assessing the rate of penetration (ROP) in percussive drilling of rock based on finite element simulations. For this end, a method to simulate the dynamic indentation in percussive drilling is developed and validated. This method includes a recently developed constitutive model to describe the rock fracture and a bit-rock interaction model. The constitutive model has a viscoplasticity part to indicate the stress states leading to rock fracture and a damage model with separate damage variables for tension and compression to quantify the rock fracture. In the numerical examples, the present approach is validated by simulations of the dynamic Brazilian disc test and dynamic indentation simulations on Kuru granite. The multiple consecutive impacts simulations carried out show that the present continuum approach is able to predict the experimental ROP. However, a close match of the experimental ROP requires that the critical damage threshold values, beyond which a damaged element contributes to the volume of removed material, are selected by the experiments. In any case, the present modelling approach, along with the procedure to convert the simulation results into ROP, provides a tool for improving the performance of percussive drilling equipment.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Materials Science
Contributors: Saksala, T., Fourmeau, M., Kane, P., Hokka, M.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 55-63
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Computers and Geotechnics
Volume: 99
ISSN (Print): 0266-352X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 3.95 SJR 1.946 SNIP 2.134
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Effects of Lime Stabilization on Hydraulic Behavior of Finnish Soft Sensitive Clays: Towards a Sustainable Geoenvironment

The note presents the results of an experimental research study on the hydraulic behavior of Finnish soft clays treated by quicklime. The effect of a wide range of water contents and of curing time on hydraulic characteristics of the treated soil was studied. 7% of quicklime was identified as the optimum lime amount by means of initial consumption of lime tests and by evaluating the drying capability of different lime amounts. Soil-lime samples were prepared by wet mixing and Standard Proctor compaction. Hydraulic conductivity tests are carried out in flexible wall permeameters both on treated and untreated soil. A general increase in hydraulic conductivity due to the addition of lime is observed (2 order of magnitude at optimum conditions). For the treated specimens, a decrease of two orders of magnitude in permeability values was observed, increasing the water content of the soil. Reduction of permeability due to curing time is within 1 order of magnitude. Lime addition reduced water sensitivity and improves the draining capability of the soil.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures, Universita Politecnica delle Marche
Contributors: Di Sante, M., Giorgetti, F., Di Buo, B., Länsivaara, T., Pasqualini, E.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 226-234
Publication date: 2018

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics
Volume: 1
Publisher: Springer
ISBN (Print): 978-981-13-2220-4
ISBN (Electronic): 978-981-13-2221-1

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Evaluation of existing CPTu-based correlations for the undrained shear strength of soft Finnish clays

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)
Contributors: Selänpää, J., Di Buo, B., Haikola, M., Länsivaara, T., D'Ignazio, M.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 571-577
Publication date: 2018

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Cone Penetration Testing 2018 : Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Cone Penetration Testing (CPT'18)
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN (Print): 978-1-138-58449-5
ISBN (Electronic): 978-0-429-00048-5

Bibliographical note

EXT="D'Ignazio, Marco"

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Evaluation of sample quality from different sampling methods in Finnish soft sensitive clays

The determination of reliable geotechnical parameters from laboratory testing is highly dependent on sample quality. Over the past decades, undisturbed sampling of soft sensitive clays has been performed using various apparatuses and procedures. This paper outlines details of the design and performance of a new Laval type tube sampler employed for the investigation of five soft clay sites located in Finland. The investigation was conducted using the new tube sampler and two different piston samplers. The sample quality is evaluated based on the recompression volume during reconsolidation to the in situ effective stress in constant-rate-of-strain (CRS) oedometer tests. Test results show that tube samples are generally characterized by higher quality, especially in low plastic clays. In particular, the quality of piston samples is highly affected by the apparatus condition and sampling operations. Furthermore, the influence of storage time on tube samples is investigated. In order to guarantee a proper confinement, and thus reducing swelling, a pressurized system is applied to the tube samples obtained in two soft clay sites. Results demonstrate that the sample quality is not significantly affected by storage time as long as the soil is properly stored into the tube.

General information

Publication status: E-pub ahead of print
MoE publication type: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)
Contributors: Di Buo, B., Selänpää, J., Länsivaara, T., D'Ignazio, M.
Number of pages: 40
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
ISSN (Print): 0008-3674
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 3 SJR 1.753 SNIP 1.927
Original language: English

Bibliographical note

EXT="D'Ignazio, Marco"

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

Foreword

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B1 Article in a scientific magazine
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures
Contributors: Länsivaara, T.
Number of pages: 1
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: No

Publication information

Journal: HKIE Transactions
Volume: 25
Issue number: 2
ISSN (Print): 1023-697X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 0.68 SJR 0.244 SNIP 0.396
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientific

Mechanical properties of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: the influence of aging and changes in moisture content

The scarcity of non-renewable natural resources and the demand for waste recycling and utilization are steering towards increasing use of waste-derived materials in civil engineering structures. However, as the quality of different waste-derived materials can vary depending on input materials and processes in which they are generated, the utilization of these materials in civil engineering may be risky and cumbersome unless their properties are well-known. In Finland, due to the recently increased number of waste incineration plants, nearly 300 000 t of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) is generated annually in the country. As the material is mainly landfilled or used in landfill site structures at the moment, the utilization of MSWI BA in different civil engineering applications could be increased, if the essential properties of the material were properly understood. In this study, the mechanical properties of recovered MSWI BA were investigated with cyclic load and static triaxial tests.. The study focused especially on the influence of changes in moisture content and its relation to the development of recovered MSWI BA stiffness and strength properties over time. The obtained results showed that the stiffness of recovered MSWI BA was highly affected by the changes in moisture content over time but also the material aging had an influence. The resilient modulus, Mr, was at least doubled during the two months storage of test specimens. Furthermore, when the MSWI BA material dried out and the moisture content decreased 5-7 %, the resilient modulus, Mr, of the material was even quadrupled.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research area: Infrastructure Construction, Research group: Earth Constructions
Contributors: Sormunen, L. A., Kolisoja, P.
Pages: 252-270
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 13 Nov 2016

Publication information

Journal: Road Materials and Pavement Design
Volume: 19
Issue number: 2
ISSN (Print): 1468-0629
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2018): CiteScore 2.28 SJR 0.963 SNIP 1.284
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Otat näytteen vain kerran

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D3 Professional conference proceedings
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures, Aalto University
Contributors: Länsivaara, T., Korkiala-Tanttu, L.
Publication date: 2018

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Geotekniikan Päivä
Publisher: SGY

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionProfessional

WC-tilat ja -opasteet vain likana silmissämme?

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D1 Article in a trade journal
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Capacity Development of Water and Environmental Services CADWES
Contributors: Katko, T. S.
Number of pages: 1
Pages: 45
Publication date: 2018
Peer-reviewed: Unknown

Publication information

Journal: Kuntatekniikka
Volume: 72
Issue number: 4
ISSN (Print): 1238-125X
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional

Artificial neural networks models for rate of penetration prediction in rock drilling

Prediction of the rate of penetration (ROP) is an important task in drilling economical assessments of mining and construction projects. In this paper, the predictability of the ROP for percussive drills was investigated using the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the linear multivariate regression analysis. The “power pack” frequency, the revolution per minute (RPM), the feed pressure, the hammer frequency, and the impact energy were considered as input parameters. The results indicate that the ANN with the regression model predicts the ROP under different conditions with high accuracy. It also demonstrates that the ANN approach is a beneficial tool that can reduce cost, time and enhance structure reliability.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Fathipour Azar, H., Saksala, T., Jalali, S. E.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 252-255
Publication date: 21 Aug 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Rakenteiden mekaniikka
Volume: 50
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 0783-6104
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Numerical modelling of rock materials with polygonal finite elements

This article presents some preliminary results on numerical modeling of rock materials with polygonal finite elements. A method to describe the rock microstructure based on Voronoi diagrams, representing the rock grain texture, is sketched. In this method, the minerals constituting the rock are represented as Voronoi cells which themselves are polygonal finite elements. A three-point bending problem under plane stress linear elasticity condition is solved in order to compare the performance of polygonal elements to ordinary finite elements. Moreover, it is demonstrated by solving the stress state in uni-axial compression that the heterogeneity described with the present method results in short-range tensile stresses which could initiate mode-I cracks.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Saksala, T.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 216-219
Publication date: 21 Aug 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Rakenteiden mekaniikka
Volume: 50
Issue number: 3
ISSN (Print): 0783-6104
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Numerical modelling of dynamic spalling test on rock with an emphasis on the influence of pre-existing cracks

This article deals with numerical modeling of rock fracture under dynamic tensile
loading and the related prediction of dynamic tensile strength. A special emphasis is laid on the influence of pre-existing natural microcrack populations as well as structural (artificial) cracks. For this end, a previously developed 3D continuum viscodamage-embedded discontinuity model is employed in the explicit dynamic finite element simulations of the spalling test. This model is capable of modelling the effect of natural microcracks populations always present in rocks as well as to capture the strain rate hardening effect of quasi-brittle materials. In the numerical
simulations of spalling test on Bohus granite, it is shown that the model can predict the pull-pack velocity of the free end of the intact rock sample and the effect of structural cracks with a good accuracy. According to the simulations, the effect of microcrack populations, modeled here as pre-embedded discontinuity populations, is weaker than the corresponding effect under quasi-static loading.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Saksala, T.
Pages: 63-76
Publication date: 7 Aug 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Rakenteiden mekaniikka
Volume: 50
Issue number: 2
ISSN (Print): 0783-6104
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Chasing measurements for real-world emissions of city buses

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Physics, Research area: Aerosol Physics, Research group: The Instrumentation, Emissions, and Atmospheric Aerosols Group, Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY), Department of Environmental Sciences, Helsinki University
Contributors: Järvinen, A., Karjalainen, P., Bloss, M., Potila, O., Simonen, P., Kuuluvainen, H., Timonen, H., Saarikoski, S., Niemi, J. V., Keskinen, J., Rönkkö, T.
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Unknown
Event: Paper presented at European Aerosol Conference 2017, Zürich, Switzerland.
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Automotive Engineering, Pollution, Energy (miscellaneous)
Keywords: Exhaust emissions, bus emissions, Air quality

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractScientific

Continuum modelling of dynamic rock fracture under triaxial confinement

This paper deals with numerical modelling of compressive fracture behavior of granite rock under high strain rate and wide range of confining pressure. For this end, a constitutive model based on damage mechanics and viscoplasticity is formulated and implemented in explicit dynamics FEM. Rock heterogeneity is characterized with the Weibull distribution. In the numerical examples, triaxial compression tests on Kuru granite at the strain rate of 600 1/s up to 225 MPa of confining pressure were simulated. Simulations show that the model captures the correct experimental failure modes, including the transition from single-to-multiple fragmentation, as well as the dynamic compressive strengths at different confining pressures.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research area: Applied Mechanics, Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization
Contributors: Saksala, T., Hokka, M., Kuokkala, V.
Number of pages: 2
Publication date: 2017

Host publication information

Title of host publication: 14th International Conference on Fracture, Proceedings of ICF 14 : Rhodes, Greece, June 18-23, 2017
Article number: 822
ISBN (Print): 978-1-53611-848-3

Bibliographical note

Kysytty isbn 19.12.2017 M. K.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Determination of remoulding energy of sensitive clays

Energy involved in disintegrating of sensitive clays from an intact to a fully remoulded state is one of the key aspects in assessing the post failure movements of sensitive clay landslides. This energy is referred to as remoulding energy. In this paper, the energy approach is conceptualised using an analytical approach. A comprehensive review of the empirical, laboratory and field techniques to estimate remoulding energy are presented and discussed in detail.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A3 Part of a book or another research book
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Norwegian Univ. of Sci. and Technol.
Contributors: Thakur, V., Degago, S. A., Selänpää, J., Länsivaara, T.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 97-107
Publication date: 2017

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Landslides in Sensitive Clays : From Research to Implementation
Publisher: Springer
ISBN (Print): 978-3-319-56486-9
ISBN (Electronic): 978-3-319-56487-6

Publication series

Name: Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research
Volume: 46
ISSN (Print): 1878-9897
ISSN (Electronic): 2213-6959
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Computers in Earth Sciences, Economic Geology, Global and Planetary Change, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Geography, Planning and Development
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020126453

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

Effects of sample disturbance in the determination of soil parameters for advanced finite element modelling of sensitive clays

The stress-strain response of sensitive clays tested in a laboratory setting can be significantly affected by disturbance effects caused by sampling, transport, storage and specimen preparation. Soil models for finite element analyses are commonly calibrated using the results from laboratory tests and, consequently, calibrated model parameters are likely to be affected by sample disturbance. For sensitive clays subjected to constant volume shearing, the stress-strain behavior is dependent on the direction of loading and, due to build-up of shear induced pore pressure, effective stresses will reduce with increasing strain in the post-peak regime. According to previous studies, peak strengths, strains at failure and postpeak behavior of sensitive clays are all significantly influenced by sample quality. Therefore, the relative quality of model predictions generated using a sensitive clay finite element model can also be expected to be notably affected by sample disturbance. In this study, the impact of sample disturbance on the determination of model input parameters for advanced finite element modelling of sensitive clays is addressed and critically discussed. Two advanced soil models are used for this purpose: the total stress based NGI-ADPSoft model, which is able to predict the anisotropic strain-softening behavior of saturated sensitive clays, and the effective stress based S-CLAY1S model, which is characterized by an anisotropic yield surface and is able to simulate soil destructuration. The practical implications of a thoughtful selection of the input parameters are evaluated through FE stability analyses of a sensitive clay slope.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A3 Part of a book or another research book
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Ramboll Finland Ltd., University of Delaware
Contributors: D’Ignazio, M., Jostad, H. P., Länsivaara, T., Lehtonen, V., Mansikkamäki, J., Meehan, C.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 146-154
Publication date: 2017

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Landslides in Sensitive Clays : From Research to Implementation
Publisher: Springer
ISBN (Print): 978-3-319-56486-9
ISBN (Electronic): 978-3-319-56487-6

Publication series

Name: Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research
Volume: 46
ISSN (Print): 1878-9897
ISSN (Electronic): 2213-6959
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Computers in Earth Sciences, Economic Geology, Global and Planetary Change, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Geography, Planning and Development
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020127433

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

Failure in anisotropic sensitive clays: a finite element study of the Perniö failure test

The railway network on coastal areas of Finland is predominantly located in soft clay areas. The undrained shear strength of such clays is generally low, highly anisotropic, rate dependent and it exhibits post-peak strain softening under undrained conditions. A full-scale failure test was performed by Tampere University of Technology in Perniö, Western Finland, in 2009. A shallow railway embankment built on a soft clay deposit was equipped with a loading structure and loaded to failure in about 30 hours. The embankment collapsed two hours after the last loading step. In this study, data collected from the experiment is used, together with laboratory test results on high quality samples, to conduct advanced finite element analysis of the Perniö failure test. The NGI-ADPSoft model is used for this purpose, which is capable of simulating the strain-softening behavior of the clay. Even though the observed rate effect is not taken into account in the analyses, the failure load can be predicted reasonably well. Good agreement is also observed for calculated displacements and failure mechanism with experimental observations.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Research group: Foundation Structures, Civil Engineering, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M., Länsivaara, T., Jostad, H. P.
Pages: 1013-1033
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 22 Feb 2017

Publication information

Journal: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
Volume: 54
Issue number: 7
ISSN (Print): 0008-3674
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 2.71 SJR 1.813 SNIP 2.064
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Numerical 3D modelling of the effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the compressive behavior of Kuru granite

This paper deals with numerical modeling of the compressive behavior of granite rock under high strain rate dynamic loading and wide range of confining pressure. For this end, a constitutive model based on damage mechanics and viscoplasticity for rock is formulated and implemented in explicit dynamics FEM. The viscoplastic part is based on a simple power law type yield criterion that incorporates the rate-dependency with a linear viscosity term. Moreover, a Rankine type of tensile cut-off is employed. The damage part of the model is formulated with separate scalar damage variables in tension and compression. The model is calibrated for Kuru granite and validated with the experimental data from dynamic compression tests at the strain rate of 600 1/s up to 225 MPa of confining pressure. The numerical simulations demonstrate that, despite the underlying continuum modeling approach, the model captures the correct experimental failure modes, including the transition from single-to-multiple fragmentation, as well as the dynamic compressive strengths at different confining pressures.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research area: Applied Mechanics, Materials Science, Research group: Materials Characterization
Contributors: Saksala, T., Hokka, M., Kuokkala, V.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 1-8
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes
Early online date: 11 Mar 2017

Publication information

Journal: Computers and Geotechnics
Volume: 88
ISSN (Print): 0266-352X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 3.43 SJR 1.979 SNIP 2.4
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Problems related to field vane testing in soft soil conditions and improved reliability of measurements using an innovative field vane device

In Finland, undrained shear strength is commonly measured using the field vane shear test (FV). Currently, the most commonly used field vane testers are the Nilcon vane and the electrical vane with shear rotation and measuring systems located above the ground level. Vane testing is normally carried out using vanes equipped with slip coupling, while the use of casing for protecting the vane is not very common. Recent studies from Finland have shown that the undrained shear strength of clays can be significantly underestimated when casing is not used. Experimental observations suggest that the slip coupling might not always be sufficient to remove all of the rod friction effects that occur during testing. Tampere University of Technology has recently purchased an innovative field vane apparatus with a vane tester unit, where torque and rotations are measured right above the vane. In this way, the effect of rod friction is minimized and the measured stressrotation behavior is less biased. In this study, issues related to practical applications, testing devices and interpretationmethods are discussed. Then, a critical comparison between test results in soft clays from both the traditional and new field vane testers is performed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A3 Part of a book or another research book
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)
Contributors: Selänpää, J., Buò, B. D., Länsivaara, T., D’Ignazio, M.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 121-131
Publication date: 2017

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Landslides in Sensitive Clays : From Research to Implementation
Publisher: Springer
ISBN (Print): 978-3-319-56486-9
ISBN (Electronic): 978-3-319-56487-6

Publication series

Name: Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research
Volume: 46
ISSN (Print): 1878-9897
ISSN (Electronic): 2213-6959
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Computers in Earth Sciences, Economic Geology, Global and Planetary Change, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Geography, Planning and Development
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 85020067264

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

Reply to the discussion by Mesri and Wang on “Correlations for undrained shear strength of Finnish soft clays"

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), National University of Singapore
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M., Phoon, K., Tan, S. A., Länsivaara, T., Lacasse, S.
Number of pages: 5
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
ISSN (Print): 0008-3674
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2017): CiteScore 2.71 SJR 1.813 SNIP 2.064
Original language: English

Bibliographical note

EXT="D'Ignazio, Marco"

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Valkea kaupunki, mustat vedet

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Juuti, P., Rajala, R.
Number of pages: 3
Pages: 15-17
Publication date: 2017
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Vesitalous
Volume: 2017
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 0505-3838
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

Älypölkky, radan monitorointi, kreosoottipölkyn korvaavat vaihtoehdot

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Luomala, H.
Publication date: 29 Nov 2016

Publication information

Media of output: Rautatietekniikkaseminaari 2016, Liikennevirasto
Year: 2016
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Other contributionScientific

Ballast bed

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Luomala, H.
Publication date: 24 Nov 2016

Publication information

Media of output: Presentation at Nordisk Banteknisk Ingenjörsutbildning (NBIU), Espoo
Year: 2016
Original language: English

Research output: Other contributionScientific

Näkökulma-kolumni: Putkiremontit kestävät aivan liian kauan

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Civil Engineering
Contributors: Saari, A.
Publication date: 24 Nov 2016

Publication information

Publisher: Sanoma Talotekniikkajulkaisut Oy
Year: 2016
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Other contributionScientific

Sleepers

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Luomala, H.
Publication date: 24 Nov 2016

Publication information

Media of output: Presentation at Nordisk Banteknisk Ingenjörsutbildning (NBIU), Espoo
Year: 2016
Original language: English

Research output: Other contributionScientific

Tutkimusohjelma Elinkaaritehokas RAta (TERA): Kokonaisvaltainen ote ratarakennetutkimukseen

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Luomala, H.
Publication date: 15 Nov 2016

Publication information

Media of output: Rakennustekniikan vuosiseminaari 2016
Year: 2016
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Other contributionScientific

Editorial to “The best papers from the 32nd International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction and Mining (ISARC 2015)”

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B1 Article in a scientific magazine
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Responsible Construction, Univ of Oulu
Contributors: Malaska, M., Heikkilä, R.
Number of pages: 1
Pages: 1
Publication date: 1 Nov 2016
Peer-reviewed: No

Publication information

Journal: Automation in Construction
Volume: 71
ISSN (Print): 0926-5805
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 4.64 SJR 1.395 SNIP 2.737
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Control and Systems Engineering, Civil and Structural Engineering, Building and Construction
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84988322453

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialScientific

Comparison of community managed projects and conventional approaches in rural water supply of Ethiopia

This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the conventional approaches (Non-CMP) in the case of Ethiopia. The data collection methods include a household survey (n=1806), community representative interviews (n=49), focus group discussions with district water experts (n=48) and observations of water systems (n=49). The data were collected from seven districts of two regions of Ethiopia. The study shows that CMP have a better platform to involve the community than non-CMP. In terms of reducing distances to water points, all approaches succeeded. However, the intended amount of water supplied is not achieved in all the cases: only 25% of CMP users and 18% of non-CMP users are able to get water according to the national standard, 15 L per capita per day. Fee collection in the approaches has a high disparity in favour of CMP. To keep long-lasting services, three requirements need to be particularly fulfilled: quantity, quality and accessibility.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Community-Led Accelerated WASH (COWASH) Project
Contributors: Behailu, B. M., Suominen, A., Katko, T. S., Mattila, H., Yayehyirad, G.
Number of pages: 15
Pages: 292-306
Publication date: 30 Sep 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Volume: 10
Issue number: 9
Article number: 04AF23059936
ISSN (Print): 1996-0786
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Undrained shear strength of Finnish clays for stability analyses of embankments

The thesis deals with the undrained shear strength (su) of Finnish clays. The research study focuses on the evaluation and modelling of undrained shear strength for total stress stability analyses of embankments and it studies some special features of sensitive clays.

Firstly, a multivariate database of Finnish clay data points is compiled in order to derive correlations for undrained shear strength specific to Finnish clays. For each data point, information on su from field vane, consolidation stresses and other physical properties is available. The dependency of su on overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and index parameters is studied. The new correlations are derived through regression analyses. Results show that the dependency of su on index parameters is more marked when the uncorrected field vane measurements are considered. On the other hand, when measured su is corrected for strain rate and converted into mobilized su, such dependency becomes negligible. The new correlations are validated through comparison with existing correlations from the literature. Bias and uncertainties of the new transformation models are evaluated through an independent database consisting of clay data points from Sweden and Norway. The main result is that the new correlations are characterized by lower uncertainty than the other commonly used correlation models.

In order to study some of the special characteristics of soft sensitive clays, the Perniö failure test is analyzed through the finite element method (FEM) using the advanced NGIADPSoft model, which includes anisotropy and strain-softening behavior of sensitive clays. A series of laboratory and in-situ tests are used to determine the anisotropic shear strength of Perniö clay and Perniö dry crust. Stability analyses are performed using the software PLAXIS 2D and the influence of stress path dependency and post-peak strength reduction on the failure load is evaluated. Calculated displacements are compared to field measurements from the experiment. A good agreement is observed between field observations and calculation results. The study indicates that both su anisotropy and strain-softening have a notable impact on the undrained behavior of the Perniö embankment. Furthermore, it was shown how the modelling of post-peak properties influences the computed failure mechanism.

The issue of undrained shear strength increase in clayey layers under old embankments due to consolidation is studied through CPTU and field vane test results from Murro test embankment. Previous test results suggested a decrease of shear strength under the embankment after a few years of consolidation. The new test results show that the strength has increased and the soil has reached its normally consolidated state. Undrained shear strength and preconsolidation pressure are assessed using existing as well as calibrated transformation models. Data from the Murro test site shows that su has increased by over 50% in the uppermost part of the deposit.

Engineering aspects related to the topics object of study are discussed and some complex issues are addressed from a practical point of view. Firstly, some indications on the use of the new correlations for su of Finnish clays are provided. Secondly, suggestions about how to derive soil parameters for FE total stress soil models are given. Finally, a simplified methodology is proposed to model strength increase in total stress analyses.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: G4 Doctoral dissertation (monograph)
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M.
Number of pages: 178
Publication date: 21 Sep 2016

Publication information

Publisher: Tampere University of Technology
ISBN (Print): 978-952-15-3804-9
ISBN (Electronic): 978-952-15-3806-3
Original language: English

Publication series

Name: Tampere University of Technology. Publication
Volume: 1412
ISSN (Print): 1459-2045

Research output: Book/ReportDoctoral thesisMonograph

Combining mineral fractions of recovered MSWI bottom ash: improvement for utilization in civil engineering structures

In real-life construction projects, the utilization of different types of waste derived aggregates can often be falsely considered as utilization, but in fact, it is merely dumping the potentially high value material from one site to another. For example, building highway noise barriers with waste derived aggregates cannot be considered as utilization. In this study, a more advanced approach was chosen in order to create aggregate like products from recovered municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and thus potentially increase their value and image in civil engineering applications. MSWI BA from one waste incineration plant in Finland was first treated with a Dutch dry treatment technology called ADR (Advanced Dry Recovery). This process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from MSWI BA and generates mineral fractions of different grain sizes. These mineral fractions may not be used separately, for example, in the unbound structural layers of roads due to the strict grain size distribution requirements of these civil engineering structures. Hence, different combinations were designed from these BA mineral fractions using the mathematical proportioning of aggregates. The aim was to create aggregate like products from this waste material for different structural layers (filtration, sub-base and base) of, for example, road and field structures. Three mixtures were chosen based on their correspondence to the grain size distribution requirements of natural aggregates and further analyzed in the laboratory from their technical, mechanical and environmental point of view. The leaching of chrome (Cr) and chloride (Cl-) exceeded the Finnish emission boundary values for utilization of certain types of ashes in civil engineering. On the other hand, the technical and mechanical properties of these mixed bottom ash products were considered suitable to be used, for example, in the unbound structural layers of the interim storage field in a waste treatment center. In such location, also the leaching potential of harmful substances can be further studied and verified in a larger scale.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions, Research area: Infrastructure Construction, Suomen Erityisjäte Oy
Contributors: Sormunen, L. A., Kalliainen, A., Kolisoja, P., Rantsi, R.
Number of pages: 12
Publication date: 22 Aug 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Waste and Biomass Valorization
ISSN (Print): 1877-2641
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 1.4 SJR 0.451 SNIP 0.659
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

A laboratory listening experiment on subjective and objective rating of impact sound insulation of concrete floors

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Building Acoustics, Turku University of Applied Sciences
Contributors: Kylliäinen, M., Hongisto, V., Oliva, D., Rekola, L.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 894-902
Publication date: Aug 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016, 45th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering : Towards a Quieter Future, August 21-24, 2016, Hamburg, Germany
Place of publication: Hamburg
Publisher: German Acoustical Society (DEGA)
Article number: 193
ISBN (Electronic): 978-3-939296-11-9

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

A method for design of sound insulation of glazed balconies against traffic noise

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Building Acoustics, A-Insinöörit Suunnittelu Oy
Contributors: Kovalainen, V., Kylliäinen, M., Huhtala, T.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 3834-3841
Publication date: Aug 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016, 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering : Towards a Quieter Future, August 21-24, 2016, Hampburg, Germany
Place of publication: Hamburg
Publisher: German Acoustical Society (DEGA)
Article number: 503
ISBN (Electronic): 978-3-939296-11-9
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Acoustics and Ultrasonics

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

Problems with Railway Track Drainage in Finland

Several studies have shown that water plays a significant role in phenomena that weaken track geometry. For instance, water may cause frost heave, thaw softening, attrition of ballast, and weakening of the load bearing capacity of a track. Functioning drainage can prevent water damage, but no researched data on the magnitude of the impacts exist.

Most of the Finnish rail network has been built in times when earthworks were kept to a minimum. Drainage generally functions well along new and renovated rail sections, but the situation is quite different with old tracks. If unevenness problems can be dealt with adequately by improving drainage, it is considerably more advantageous compared to massive renovation. The aim is to find out whether systematic improvement of drainage can produce significant savings in rail network maintenance.

The study examines the unevenness problems discovered along the Finnish rail network where the functioning of drainage is thought to be a major factor, while seeking solutions to the problems. This article presents the technical and administrative problems related to drainage in the Finnish rail network. Based on observations made so far, even basic drainage solutions are beset with problems since e.g. ditches are not cleaned with sufficient regularity.

The on-going study aimed to determine the impact of drainage on track unevenness at monitored sites. However, the method did not work as expected since no suitable sites, where other significant measures had not been carried out in connection with drainage renovation, could be found along the rail network. Moreover, it was difficult to get information about earlier renovation measures.

It can be said already at this phase of the study that drainage maintenance should be improved. There are also problems with drainage assessment methods which consist mainly of visual inspection instead of more sophisticated methods. Subjective assessment methods and maintenance contracts that call for maintenance ‘as required’ easily lead to postponement of maintenance measures.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Latvala, J., Nurmikolu, A., Luomala, H.
Number of pages: 7
Pages: 1051-1058
Publication date: 13 Jul 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Procedia Engineering
Volume: 143
ISSN (Print): 1877-7058
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 0.74 SJR 0.286 SNIP 0.725
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

The effect of climate change on freeze-thaw durability of concrete structures in Finland

Lahdensivu presented in his Doctoral Thesis (Durability Properties and Actual Deterioration of Finnish Concrete Facades and Balconies, 2012) that without proper air-entrainment outdoor concrete structures have needed average of 307 freeze-thaw cycles (threshold value: t ≤ -5 °C) after a rain event in southern Finland and 388 cycles in inland for incipient freeze-thaw damage to occur. The difference between figures can be explained by the greater amount of wind-driven rain (WDR) before the freeze-thaw cycle on coastal areas.
As a consequence of climate change it has been shown that by the end of the century, the amount of WDR is going to increase 30 % at southern Finland and 40 % at inland. At the same time the amount of freeze-thaw cycles after a rain event are decreasing significantly at both locations which indicates freeze-thaw durability-wise longer service life for outdoor concrete structures. However, the latest studies show that while the amount of freeze-thaw cycles is decreasing, the amount of WDR before the cycles is also increasing significantly.
The WDR at winter time in Finland is highly orientated on west to south-east directions which can be seen also by the degradation rate observations of concrete facades and balconies based on condition assessments. In this study, the changes at WDR before the freeze-thaw events and the effect of climate change on them depending on the structure orientation are calculated to estimate the changes of climatic stress level on outdoor concrete structures.

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Service Life Engineering of Structures, Tampere University of Technology
Contributors: Pakkala, T., Lemberg, A., Lahdensivu, J.
Number of pages: 1
Pages: 53
Publication date: Jun 2016
Peer-reviewed: Unknown
Event: Paper presented at OCEANEXT : Interdisciplinary Conference, .
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Civil and Structural Engineering
Keywords: Freeze/thaw, Concrete, Wind-driven rain, Service life

Bibliographical note

INT=rak,"Lemberg, Antti-Matti"

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractScientific

Deterioration mechanisms and life cycle of concrete monoblock railway sleepers in Finnish conditions

Thirty eight sleepers aged 30 to 40 years old were removed from Finnish railway lines and were loaded. Twelve new sleepers were also tested. The old sleepers fulfilled most of the requirements specified for the new ones. The old sleepers were also much more resistant to loading than predicted by structural calculations. The purpose of field tests was to establish the role of traffic loads in the life-cycle of sleepers: the actual stresses and moments in sleepers due to traffic loads; the distribution of the load through the underside of the sleeper to the ballast; and the variation in ballast-sleeper reaction on different sections of track in different seasons. Strain changes at the top surfaces of sleepers were measured on tracks while the rail was loaded by passing trains. Ballast-sleeper reactions tended to be concentrated under the rail along a length of sleeper of approximately 350 mm towards the centre of the track. The mean bending moments determined at the rail seat and centre of sleepers were about ±2.5 kNm, and the maximum moments were up to ±10 kNm. The purpose of fatigue loading tests was to analyse the long term properties of the sleepers and the effect of fatigue on the stiffness of sleepers. Several load levels were chosen in order to estimate the significance of the fatigue in a real operating situation. The fatigue limit determined based on the loading tests and the computational limit state of crack formation were clearly higher than the bending moments measured in the field tests.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D3 Professional conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Vaativat rakenteet, Research group: Concrete and Bridge Structures, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Kerokoski, O., Rantala, T., Nurmikolu, A.
Publication date: 31 May 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: WCRR 2016 Proceedings : 11th World congress on railway research, 29.5-2.6.2016, Milano

Bibliographical note

ei isbn 8.12.16

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionProfessional

Betonirakenteiden korjausohjeet 2016, by 41

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D5 Text book, professional manual or guide or a dictionary
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Service Life Engineering of Structures, Research area: Structural Engineering
Contributors: Köliö, A., Pakkala, T., Lahdensivu, J., Pentti, M.
Number of pages: 115
Publication date: May 2016

Publication information

Publisher: Suomen Betoniyhdistys r.y.
ISBN (Print): 978-952-68068-7-7
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Book/ReportBookProfessional

Preliminary results from a study aiming to improve ground investigation data

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures, Research area: Infrastructure Construction
Contributors: Di Buo, B., D'Ignazio, M., Selänpää, J., Länsivaara, T.
Number of pages: 11
Pages: 187-197
Publication date: May 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting : Challenges in Nordic Geotechnic 25th-28th of May
Place of publication: Reykjavik
Publisher: Icelandic Geotechnical Society
ISBN (Electronic): 978-9935-24-002-6

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Strength increase below an old test embankment in Finland

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M., Länsivaara, T.
Pages: 357-366
Publication date: May 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: The 17th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting : Conference proceedings
Place of publication: Reykjavik
Publisher: Icelandic Geotechnical Society
ISBN (Electronic): 978-9935-24-002-6

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

3D Finite Element Model as a Tool for Analyzing the Structural Behavior of a Railway Track

The rising public and commercial demands on railway network increases the need to improve systems that comprise the railway network. Especially in case of mixed corridors, the demands for track smoothness and load carrying capacity increase simultaneously. From this perspective, the optimization of track design creates efficiency and reduction of life-cycle costs. Hence, there is a great need for a tool which enables designing the load-carrying capacity of a railway track structure as a whole and simultaneously evaluates the stress and/or strain levels of each track component such that the life cycle of the track structure is optimized. The main focus of this study was to create a three dimensional structural model in which the stress-strain behavior of different railway track components could be evaluated realistically. The created model is based on finite element method using PLAXIS 3D software which is specialized in geotechnical problems. Differing from most of the traditional methods, which are based on a theory of linear elasticity, Finite Element Method-based approach with the chosen tool provides a non-linear solution and a three dimensional stress state. As features, the created structural model enables variation in structural layer thickness, rail size, sleeper type (wood/concrete) and material properties of rail pad, ballast, subballast layers and subgrade.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions, Research area: Infrastructure Construction, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Kalliainen, A., Kolisoja, P., Nurmikolu, A.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 820-827
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Procedia Engineering
Volume: 143
ISSN (Print): 1877-7058
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 0.74 SJR 0.286 SNIP 0.725
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Engineering(all)
Keywords: 3D Finite Element Method, Load Carrying Capacity, Mechanical Behavior, Modelling, Railway Track
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84982993434

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Acceptability of contaminated soils and waste materials in landfill structures

General information

Publication status: Published
Organisations: Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions
Contributors: Leppänen, M. M., Kuula, P.
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Unknown
Event: Paper presented at Nordrocs, .

Research output: Other conference contributionPaper, poster or abstractProfessional

Back-calculation of the Saint-Alban A test embankment with a new modelling approach in LEM

To facilitate the continued use of limit equilibrium method (LEM) in stability design of embankments on soft clays, the new calculation method “Hybrid su” (HSU) has been developed. It is used to derive undrained shear strength from effective strength parameters, or to predict the excess pore pressure at failure. The HSU method uses an anisotropic effective stress soil model with volumetric hardening, from which a closed form solution for the effective mean stress at failure p’f is derived. This in turn is used to derive the anisotropic undrained shear strength (for use in total stress analyses), or excess pore pressure (for use in undrained effective stress analyses). The model accounts for factors such as anisotropy, consolidation state, volumetric hardening and to some extent, rate effects. An advantage of the model over traditional undrained effective stress calculations is that the overestimation of shear strength at F > 1 is avoided.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures
Contributors: Lehtonen, V., Länsivaara, T.
Number of pages: 9
Pages: 691-699
Publication date: 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of the The 17th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting, Reykjavik Iceland : 25th - 28th of May 2016
ISBN (Electronic): 978-9935-24-002-6

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Characterization of fine fraction mined from two Finnish landfills

A fine fraction (FF) was mined from two Finnish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Kuopio (1- to 10-year-old, referred as new landfill) and Lohja (24- to 40-year-old, referred as old landfill) in order to characterize FF. In Kuopio the FF (<20mm) was on average 45±7% of the content of landfill and in Lohja 58±11%. Sieving showed that 86.5±5.7% of the FF was smaller than 11.2mm and the fraction resembled soil. The total solids (TS) content was 46-82%, being lower in the bottom layers compared to the middle layers. The organic matter content (measured as volatile solids, VS) and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of FF were lower in the old landfill (VS/TS 12.8±7.1% and BMP 5.8±3.4m3 CH4/t TS) than in the new landfill (VS/TS 21.3±4.3% and BMP 14.4±9.9m3 CH4/t TS), and both were lower compared with fresh MSW. In the Kuopio landfill materials were also mechanically sieved in the full scale plant in two size fraction <30mm (VS/TS 31.1% and 32.9m3 CH4/t TS) and 30-70mm (VS/TS 50.8% and BMP 78.5m3 CH4/t TS). The nitrogen (3.5±2.0g/kg TS), phosphorus (<1.0-1.5g/kg TS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (2.77±1.77kg/t TS) contents were low in all samples. Since FF is major fraction of the content of landfill, the characterization of FF is important to find possible methods for using or disposing FF mined from landfills.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Research group: Industrial Bioengineering and Applied Organic Chemistry
Contributors: Mönkäre, T. J., Palmroth, M. R. T., Rintala, J. A.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 34-39
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Waste Management
Volume: 47A
ISSN (Print): 0956-053X
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 4 SJR 1.407 SNIP 2.177
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Waste Management and Disposal
Keywords: Biochemical methane potential, Characterization, Fine fraction, Landfill mining, Municipal solid waste
Electronic versions: 
URLs: 
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84958845557

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Commercialising reclaimed materials in earthworks – guidelines for productization and the process of appending these materials in the Finnish national code of practice

To decrease the use of non-renewable natural resources as well as environmental effects of earth-works, natural aggregate materials can be replaced with recycled materials acquired from surplus soil, industrial by-products and waste, etc. When wishing to increase the usage of these reclaimed materials (=“UUMA”-material), the usage must be straightforward for developers, designers and constructors alike. To make this possible, the materials must have design guidelines for their appro-priate applications. They must be productized and CE marked or otherwise authorized, and the con-struction guidelines for the materials must be included in the Finnish general specifications for in-frastructural construction works (InfraRYL). As productization is especially important in increasing the usage of UUMA materials, guidelines for vendors are being drawn that present information on commercializing reclaimed materials to be used in earthworks. The guidelines for productization are being prepared in the Finnish national UUMA2 programme (2013-2017, www.uuma2.fi), which was created to promote the use of recycled materials in earthworks.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research area: Infrastructure Construction, Research group: Earth Constructions, Research group: Track Structures, Ramboll Finland Ltd.
Contributors: Koivisto, K., Forsman, J., Ronkainen, M., Lahtinen, P., Kolisoja, P., Kuula, P.
Number of pages: 10
Publication date: 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Geotechnical Meeting Reykjavik Iceland : Challenges in Nordic Geotechnic 25th - 28th of May
Place of publication: Reykjavik
Publisher: Icelandic Geotechnical Society
ISBN (Electronic): 978-9935-24-002-6

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Correlations for undrained shear strength of Finnish soft clays

The study focuses on the derivation of transformation models for undrained shear strength (su) of Finnish soft sensitive clays. Specific correlation equations for su of Finnish clays are presented in this work for the first time. Field and laboratory measurements from 24 test sites in Finland are exploited for this purpose and a multivariate database is constructed. The multivariate data consists of su from field vane, preconsolidation stress, vertical effective stress, liquid limit, plastic limit, natural water content and sensitivity. The main objective is to evaluate the interdependence of su, consolidation stresses and index parameters and provide a consistent framework for practical use. The new correlations are established through regression analyses. The constructed framework is further validated by another independent multivariate database of clays from Sweden and Norway as well as by empirical equations for Swedish and Norwegian clays. Existing correlations are evaluated for Finnish and Scandinavian clays. Finally, bias and uncertainties of the new correlations are presented.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures, National University of Singapore
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M., Phoon, K. K., Tan, S. A., Länsivaara, T.
Pages: 1628-1645
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Canadian Geotechnical Journal
Volume: 53
Issue number: 10
ISSN (Print): 0008-3674
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 2.2 SJR 1.93 SNIP 2.096
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Modelling of plastic culvert and road embankment interaction in 3D

A series of 3D Finite Element simulations was performed to investigate the effect of different factors influencing the distortions undergone by a plastic culvert tube while subject to external loading from a heavy truck. The applied simulation model was verified by full-scale loading tests carried out on a number of actual culvert installation sites. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that both installation depth and quality of the material surrounding the culvert have a dominant effect on culvert distortions while the effects of material quality above the culvert and the type of tyre configuration transmitting the wheel load are much less pronounced.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research area: Infrastructure Construction, Research group: Earth Constructions
Contributors: Kolisoja, P., Kalliainen, A.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 427-434
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Procedia Engineering
Volume: 143
ISSN (Print): 1877-7058
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 0.74 SJR 0.286 SNIP 0.725
Original language: English

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Spatial variability of reed bed spectra in Olkiluoto Island

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Pori Department, Research group: Data-analytics and Optimization
Contributors: Tuominen, J., Lipping, T.
Number of pages: 4
Pages: 7188-7191
Publication date: 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: 2016 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), : July 10-15, Beijing, China
Publisher: IEEE
ISBN (Electronic): 978-1-5090-3332-4

Publication series

Name: IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Electronic): 2153-7003

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Teräsrumpujen uudet korjausmenetelmät: Halkaistu sisäputki, puolipohjaus ja pohjan betonointi

Tässä tutkimuksessa arvioitiin uudentyyppisten korjausmenetelmien soveltuvuutta teräksestä valmistettujen tierumpujen käyttöiän pidentämiseksi. Tutkimuksessa rajauduttiin tarkastelemaan sellaisia korjausmenetelmiä, joita käyttämällä rumpuputken aukon koko pienenee mahdollisimman vähän. Rumpujen korjaaminen on kannattavinta kohteissa, joissa rummun asennussyvyys on suuri tai tien aukikaivaminen aiheuttaa suuret liikenteenjärjestelykustannukset.

Tutkimuksessa on tarkasteltu kolmea uutta menetelmää: halkaistu sisäputki, puolipohjaus ja pohjan betonointi. Näistä kahta ensinnä mainittua kokeiltiin verraten matalalla peitesyvyydellä olevissa rummuissa, mistä johtuen niistä oli mielekästä mitata myös rumpurakenteen mekaanista toimintaa raskaan ajoneuvoyhdistelmän ajaessa mittauskohteen yli. Pohjan betonointimenetelmän koekohteena toimineella rummulla peitesyvyys on sitä vastoin niin suuri, että rumpuputkeen ylittävästä ajoneuvosta mobilisoituvat muodonmuutokset jäävät oletettavasti merkityksettömän pieniksi. Tästä johtuen kyseiseltä koekohteelta kerätyt havainnot rajoittuvat pelkästään korjausrakenteen periaatteen ja toteutuksen dokumentointiin. Niitä kahta koekohdetta, joilla tehtiin mittauksia, tarkasteltiin myös tarkemmin elementtimenetelmään perustuvien mallien avulla.

Kaikki tutkimukseen valikoituneet korjausmenetelmät osoittautuivat rakennettujen koekohteiden perusteella toteuttamiskelpoisiksi. Kahdessa kohteessa kuormituskokeiden perusteella saatujen mittaustulosten perusteella korjausmenetelmät arvioitiin myös rummun mekaanisen toiminnan kannalta toimiviksi ratkaisuiksi. Mittausten avulla todennetut jännitys- ja muodonmuutostasot jäivät verrattain maltillisiksi, vaikka rummun peitesyvyys oli koekohteissa melko pieni.

Aiemmissa rumpuputken mekaanisen toiminnan mallinnuksissa käytetyn PLAXIS 3D-ohjelmiston rinnalla mallinnettiin tässä tutkimuksessa rumpuputkeen syntyviä rasituksia tarkemmin myös ANSYS-ohjelmistolla. Tämän osalta todettiin, että korjatun rumpuputken mekaanista käyttäytymistä ei saatu verifioitua uskottaviksi arvioiduilla materiaaliparametreilla. Suurin yksittäinen laskennallista virhettä aiheuttava tekijä oli ANSYS-ohjelmistossa käytössä ollut materiaalimalli, joka mahdollisti vetojännitysten syntymisen sitomattomiin tien rakennekerroksiin. Tällöin liikennekuormitus ei vaikuta etenkään tierakenteen syvyyssuunnassa tarpeeksi suurena, ja myös rummun yläpintaa rasittava puristusjännitys jää laskentamalleissa liian pieneksi. Tulevia korjausratkaisuja ei siis tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella pystytä verifioimaan pelkästään laskennallisesti tässä tutkimuksessa käytetyllä lähestymistavalla, mikäli rajaudutaan uskottaviksi arvioituihin materiaaliparametreihin tien rakennekerrosten ja pohjamaan osalta. Näin ollen laskennallisten parametrien määrittämisen tueksi tarvitaan tarkempia tietoja joko rumpuputken käyttäytymisestä tai rumpa ympäröivistä maakerroksista.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D5 Text book, professional manual or guide or a dictionary
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions, Research group: Structural Mechanics, Research area: Infrastructure Construction
Contributors: Kalliainen, A., Haakana, V., Korhonen, M., Mäkinen, J., Kolisoja, P.
Number of pages: 70
Publication date: 2016

Publication information

Publisher: Liikennevirasto
ISBN (Electronic): 978-952-317-268-5
Original language: English

Publication series

Name: Liikenneviraston tutkimuksia ja selvityksiä
ISSN (Electronic): 1798-6656

Research output: Book/ReportBookProfessional

The effects of improved energy efficiency on indoor environmental quality in multi-family buildings

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Research group: Concrete and Bridge Structures, Research area: Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Building Physics, Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Finland National Institute for Health & Welfare, Dept Environm Hlth, Kaunas Univ Technol, Kaunas University of Technology, Dept Environm Technol
Contributors: Du, L., Prasauskas, T., Leivo, V., Turunen, M., Kiviste, M., Martuzevicius, D., Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U.
Publication date: 2016

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Indoor Air 2016 : The 14th international conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate Ghent, Belgium July 3-8 2016
Article number: 737
ISBN (Electronic): 978-0-9846855-5-4

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Vesihuollon strateginen kehittäminen haltuun: Ydin- ja tukitoiminnon tarpeen hahmottaa selkeästi

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D1 Article in a trade journal
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Katko, T. S., Hukka, J. J.
Number of pages: 2
Pages: 12-13
Publication date: 2016
Peer-reviewed: Unknown

Publication information

Journal: Kuntatekniikka
Volume: 70
Issue number: 2
ISSN (Print): 1238-125X
Original language: Finnish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleProfessional

Tien ja radan sitomattomissa rakennekerroksissa käytettävien kiviainesten lujuuden ja hienontumisen tutkiminen : kirjallisuusselvitys

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D4 Published development or research report or study
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Kuula, P.
Number of pages: 115
Publication date: 18 Nov 2015

Publication information

Place of publication: Helsinki
Publisher: Liikennevirasto
Volume: 68
Edition: 2015
ISBN (Electronic): 978-952-317-181-7
Original language: Finnish

Publication series

Name: Liikenneviraston tutkimuksia ja selvityksiä
Publisher: Liikennevirasto
Volume: 2015
No.: 68
ISSN (Electronic): 1798-6664

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportProfessional

Arsenic in bedrock, soil and groundwater - The first arsenic guidelines for aggregate production established in Finland

Concern over arsenic (As)-rich drinking water has gained worldwide attention since the 1990s, when the prob- lem was discovered in West Bengal in India and in Bangladesh. Since then, authorities and research institutes have focused on risk assessment and management for As in Finland. Nationwide geochemical mapping projects determined background levels and revealed regions with a higher than average As content in bedrock and soil. Approximately 10% of the citizens in Finland use drinking water from private wells. Groundwater, especially from drilled bedrock wells, may contain As concentrations higher than 10 μg/L, the European Union quality guideline for As in drinking water. Here, we present the outcome of two European Union projects, RAMAS and ASROCKS, which based their conclusions on nationwide databases and thousands of samples. Both RAMAS and ASROCKS focused on the Tampere-Häme region of Southern Finland, where bedrock and soil contain more As than in other parts of Finland on average. Over 1000 groundwater samples revealed that drilled bedrock wells may contain As-rich water in certain geological units. Naturally occurring As in bedrock and soil may also cause themobilization of As during rock aggregate production and construction activities, potentially impacting on groundwater aquifers, surface waters, and biota. Arsenic concentrations in aggregate production and con- struction exceeded the regional background levels in some bedrock and aggregate product samples, but during leaching tests As concentrations were found to be low. Based on the results, riskmanagement toolswere revised and guidelines for the rock aggregate industry were established in cooperation with authorities, companies, and other stakeholders. To our knowledge, the guidelines establishedwere the first in theworld. The guidelines for As for the aggregate and construction industries can be applied in other countries and adapted to local conditions.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions, Research group: Track Structures, Aalto University, Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Finnish Environment Institute
Contributors: Parviainen, A., Loukola-Ruskeeniemi, K., Tarvainen, T., Hatakka, T., Härmä, P., Backman, B., Ketola, T., Kuula, P., Lehtinen, H., Sorvari, J., Pyy, O., Ruskeeniemi, T., Luoma, S.
Number of pages: 15
Pages: 709-723
Publication date: 1 Nov 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Earth-Science Reviews
Volume: 150
ISSN (Print): 0012-8252
Ratings: 
  • Scopus rating (2015): CiteScore 7.7 SJR 3.692 SNIP 3.167
Original language: English
ASJC Scopus subject areas: Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
Keywords: Arsenic, Bedrock, Construction, Groundwater, Risk management, Rock aggregates, Soil, Surface water
Source: Scopus
Source ID: 84943781121

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Kapillaaristen vedenimuominaisuuksien määrittämiseen sopivan vapaan vedenimukoelaitteiston kehittäminen

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Building Physics
Contributors: Tuominen, E., Vinha, J.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 233-238
Publication date: 20 Oct 2015

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Rakennusfysiikka 2015. Uusimmat tutkimustulokset ja hyvät käytännön ratkaisut. 20.-22.10.2015, Tampere
Place of publication: Tampere
Publisher: Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto, rakennustekniikan laitos, rakennetekniikka
Editors: Vinha, J., Ruuska, T.
ISBN (Print): 978-952-15-3580-2
Keywords: Double skin facade, Energy efficiency, New renovation consepts, Innovative HVAC, Earth to air heat exchancer

Bibliographical note

AUX=rak,"Tuominen, Eero"

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

Laastien vedenimukertoimen määrittämisen virhelähdekokeet

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Tuominen, E., Vinha, J.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 239-244
Publication date: 20 Oct 2015

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Rakennusfysiikka 2015. Uusimmat tutkimustulokset ja hyvät käytännön ratkaisut. 20.-22.10.2015, Tampere
Place of publication: Tampere
Publisher: Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto, rakennustekniikan laitos, rakennetekniikka
Editors: Vinha, J., Ruuska, T.
ISBN (Print): 978-952-15-3580-2
Keywords: Double skin facade, Energy efficiency, New renovation consepts, Innovative HVAC, Earth to air heat exchancer

Bibliographical note

AUX=rak,"Tuominen, Eero"

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

Laastin ja betonin lämmönjohtavuuden ja ominaislämpökapasiteetin määrittäminen lämpövirtalevylaitteella

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: B3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Building Physics
Contributors: Ruuska, T., Vinha, J.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 227-232
Publication date: 20 Oct 2015

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Rakennusfysiikka 2015. Uusimmat tutkimustulokset ja hyvät käytännön ratkaisut. 20.-22.10.2015, Tampere
Place of publication: Tampere
Publisher: Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto, rakennustekniikan laitos, rakennetekniikka
Editors: Vinha, J., Ruuska, T.
ISBN (Print): 978-952-15-3580-2
Keywords: Double skin facade, Energy efficiency, New renovation consepts, Innovative HVAC, Earth to air heat exchancer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

Betonisten ratapölkkyjen väsytyskuormituskokeet

In fatigue load tests, unused Finnish concrete railway sleepers B97 and BP99 were loaded. The purpose of the loading tests was to analyse the fatigue properties of the sleepers and the effect of the fatigue on the stiffness of the sleeper. Furthermore, the significance of cracks was estimated in the study. The load levels were chosen so that it was possible to estimate the significance of the fatigue in a real operating situation. The fatigue limit that has been determined based on the loading tests and the calculatory limit state of crack formation are distinctly higher than the bending moments that have been measured in the field tests. Consequently, the deterioration of the railway sleepers under the traffic load and due to the fatigue is very unlikely.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures
Contributors: Rantala, T., Kerokoski, O., Nurmikolu, A.
Number of pages: 16
Pages: 18-33
Publication date: 3 Jun 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Rakenteiden mekaniikka
Volume: 48
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 0783-6104
Original language: Finnish
Keywords: betoniratapölkky, kuormituskoe, väsyminen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Test in scala reale su argille sensibili: l’esperienza finlandese

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D3 Professional conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M.
Publication date: May 2015

Host publication information

Title of host publication: 5 IAGIG, Incontro Annuale dei Giovani Ingegneri Geotecnici
Place of publication: Rome

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionProfessional

A proposal for some modifications of EN 1997-1 design approaches

All Eurocodes are currently under a critical review, while the work for a second generation of codes are about to start
in 2015. For the geotechnical design EN 1997-1 is facing high demands for harmonization and simplification of the present code.
The paper presents some proposals for improving the code regarding ultimate limit state (ULS) design. The goal is to make the
code better in accounting for uncertainties involved in the design and possible consequences of an ultimate limit state. When
applying a material factor approach (MFA), the partial safety factors are suggested to depend on both the uncertainty of the
material and the consequence of failure. Such an approach is well suited for slope stability analysis. However, the authors
suggest that also the uncertainties involved with loads should be placed on the material factors. For retaining wall design and
load factor approach (LFA) is suggested in addition to MFA similar to present Design Approach (DA) 1 in the Eurocode. This
approach gave the most consistent design for all cases in a comprehensive study preformed. Some modifications are though
suggested also for DA1 to make the design simpler and even more consistent.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures
Contributors: Länsivaara, T., Knuuti, M.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 486-491
Publication date: 2015

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Fifth International Symposium on Geotechnical Safety and Risk (ISGSR) : Rotterdam, The Netherlands 13-16 October 2015
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN (Print): 978-1-61499-579-1
ISBN (Electronic): 978-1-61499-580-7

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Kiviaines- ja luonnonkiviteollisuuden kehitysnäkymät

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D4 Published development or research report or study
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures, Työ- ja elinkeinoministeriö, Infra ry, Suomen ympäristökeskus SYKE - Finnish Environment Institute, Kiviteollisuusliitto ry, Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Aalto University, Geological Survey of Finland
Contributors: Loukola-Ruskeeniemi, K. (ed.), Lonka, H. (ed.), Ehrukainen, E., Gustafsson, J., Honkanen, M., Härmä, P., Jauhiainen, P., Kuula, P., Nenonen, K., Pellinen, T., Rintala, J., Selonen, O., Martikainen, M., Aalto, M.
Number of pages: 72
Publication date: 2015

Publication information

Place of publication: Helsinki
Publisher: Työ- ja elinkeinoministeriö
Volume: 2015
ISBN (Print): 978-952-327-047-3
ISBN (Electronic): 978-952-327-048-0
Original language: Finnish

Publication series

Name: Työ- ja elinkeinoministeriön julkaisuja
Publisher: Työ- ja elinkeinoministeriö
Volume: 2015
No.: 54
ISSN (Print): 1797-3554
ISSN (Electronic): 1797-3562

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportProfessional

Konvektiivinen lämmönsiirtyminen ratapenkereessä

Modern track evenness demands are high which is why frost heave causes
considerable problems in Finland. Nowadays railway ballast and sub-ballast are often
of crushed rock whose thermal performance differs from that of the traditional gravel.
Many studies around the world have found that convective heat transfer may occur in
very coarse crushed rock aggregate. This can lead to increased heat transfer from the
embankment which allows frost to penetrate deeper than normal calculation methods
predict.
Many studies have been conducted on free convection internationally, and there is a
calculation model for estimating its probability. However, the calculation involves
problems because the calculation model considers intrinsic permeability, which is
difficult to define for coarse materials. Intrinsic permeability can be calculated from
water permeability. Unfortunately, water permeability is difficult to determine for
coarse materials. The results of research conducted abroad are not as such applicable
in determining convection in Finnish railway embankments because of different grain
sizes. Therefore, new laboratory test apparatus was built. Three materials of different
gradation were tested in the lab: 31.5/63 mm ballast aggregate, 5/16 mm crushed
rock aggregate, and 0/63 mm sub-ballast material.
Strong natural convective heat transfer via air occurred in the railway ballast tested in
the lab. If the medium was moist air or water, convection could occur at smaller
temperature differences. No significant convection occurred in the crushed rock and
sub-ballast material via convection, but when water was added to the sample, thermal
conductivity of the material increased significantly due to convection. The same
phenomenon was observed in the case of 5/16 mm crushed rock, but adding of water
did not increase thermal conductivity significantly.
Two actual railway embankments on which temperature data was available were also
tested. The data allowed estimating the temperature differences in the embankments.
Based on the results from the test embankments in Seinäjoki, Finland, the thermal
performance of the gravel embankment and crushed rock embankment differed, but
the possibility of natural convection could not be proved nor completely excluded.
The study showed that crushed rock ballast and sub-ballast material may allow
natural convection to occur if its grain size distribution is close to the most coarseand
even-grained materials allowed by the current guidelines Sorting of the material
in the building phase can increase this susceptibility to convection.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D4 Published development or research report or study
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Latvala, J.
Number of pages: 115
Publication date: 2015

Publication information

Publisher: Liikennevirasto
Volume: 20/2015
ISBN (Print): 78-952-317-081-0
ISBN (Electronic): 78-952-317-081-0
Original language: Finnish

Publication series

Name: Liikenneviraston tutkimuksia ja selvityksiä
Publisher: Liikennevirasto
Keywords: Convective heat transfer, Frost depth, Railway track structures

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportProfessional

Selvitys UUMA-materiaalien teknisen kelpoisuuden arviointiin liittyvistä testausstandardeista ja -menetelmistä (1. vaihe), 29.12.2014

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D4 Published development or research report or study
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Track Structures, Research group: Earth Constructions
Contributors: Kuula, P., Kolisoja, P., Sjöberg, M., Ketola, T., Koivisto, K., Forsman, J., Dettenborn, T., Jyvärä, H.
Publication date: 2015

Publication information

Publisher: Ramboll
Original language: Finnish

Publication series

Name: UUMA 2, Uusiomateriaalit maarakentamisessa ohjelma 2013-2015
Publisher: Ramboll

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=rak,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2015-01-13

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 14

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportProfessional

Shear bands in soft clays: strain-softening behavior in finite element method

Strain-softening behavior of soft sensitive clays is very often neglected in
geotechnical design. During undrained loading, such materials show a dramatic loss of strength after the peak stress, until residual strength is reached at large strain. As a consequence, local failure occurs and plastic strains localize in a shear band. Shear band modeling in Finite Element Method requires a regularization technique to overcome mesh dependency. NGI-ADPSoft2 model is able to simulate the post-peak softening behavior of sensitive clays. In this study, the influence of strain softening on the stability of sensitive clay slopes is studied using the NGI-ADPSoft2 model. The analyses are conducted using the finite element software PLAXIS 2D AE. The advantages of using a strain-softening soil model are discussed.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A1 Journal article-refereed
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M., Länsivaara, T.
Number of pages: 16
Pages: 83-98
Publication date: 2015
Peer-reviewed: Yes

Publication information

Journal: Rakenteiden mekaniikka
Volume: 48
Issue number: 1
ISSN (Print): 0783-6104
Original language: English

Bibliographical note

xoa ei tarkistettu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Varmuuden kohdentaminen geotekniikassa, miten Eurokoodeja voisi kehittää?

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D3 Professional conference proceedings
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Foundation Structures
Contributors: Länsivaara, T.
Publication date: 2015

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Geotekniikan päivä 2015
Publisher: SGY

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionProfessional

Anisotropic total and effective stress stability analysis of the Perniö failure test

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Life Cycle Effectiveness of the Built Environment (LCE@BE)
Contributors: D'Ignazio, M., Mansikkamäki, J., Länsivaara, T.
Number of pages: 6
Pages: 609-614
Publication date: 2014

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering : Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering NUMGE2014, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 June 2014
Publisher: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group; A Balkema book
Editors: Hicks, M. A. .., Brinkgreve, R. B. .. J. .., Rohe, A.
ISBN (Print): 978-1-138-00146-6
ISBN (Electronic): 978-1-315-75182-5

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=rak,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-12-31

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 245

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

ASROCKS-Hankkeen heikkouuttomenetelmien vertailu

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D4 Published development or research report or study
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Tarvainen, T., Hatakka, T., Backman, B., Ketola, T., Härmä, P.
Number of pages: 13
Publication date: 2014

Publication information

Publisher: GEOLOGIAN TUTKIMUSKESKUS
Original language: Finnish

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=rak,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-12-30

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 1607

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportProfessional

Condition-Based Track Maintenance and Rehabilitation Design Using Combined Data Analysis

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Silvast, M., Nurmikolu, A., Wiljanen, B., Mäkelä, E.
Number of pages: 8
Pages: 649-656
Publication date: 2014

Host publication information

Title of host publication: GEORAIL 2014 : 2nd International symposium - Railway geotechnical engineering, 6-7 November 2014, France
Place of publication: Ranska
Publisher: IFSTTAR
ISBN (Print): 978-2-7208-2621-4

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=rak,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-12-30<br/>Publisher name: IFSTTAR

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 1513

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Finnish mine waste disposal areas

In 2013, a total of forty-six mines and quarries were operating in Finland, and several new mining projects were in progress. Both mining and environmental legislation and dam safety regulations have been developed and renewed during recent years, and the mining and permitting authorities have changed.
Due to problems at the Talvivaara Mine in 2013, the Finnish government decided to implement a voluntary stress test for Finnish mines. The method was developed based on the stress test designed for nuclear power plants by the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG). Altogether twenty-
one mines or concentrating plants were chosen to be tested, and twenty responded. In the stress test questionnaire there were fifteen questions on seven risk scenarios that the nominated expert group assessed to be both potential and significant. There are sixty-seven tailings dams in Finland. Nine of them have been classified as Class 1 (“consequence class”), that is, dams which could cause loss of life in the event of dam failure. The study showed that the hydrological design of tailings dams has to be reconsidered. One finding of the stress test was that the dam safety legislation and the guidelines do not define criteria for the closure of tailings dams. Based on the results, mining companies are monitoring their dams quite well and are aware of dam safety risks, probably thanks to the detailed dam safety legislation. However, the base of the waste areas is typically ignored. Old mining waste areas are mainly built on natural soil layer without any liners. New mining waste areas require an environmental permit, which contains requirements for the bottom liners as
well.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions
Contributors: Leppänen, M., Laasonen, J., Välisalo, T.
Publication date: 2014

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Geosynthetics Mining Solutions 2014
Publisher: Infomine
ISBN (Print): 978-0-9917905-5-5
Keywords: mining, waste, liner, geosynthetics

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Kiviainesten otto arseenialueilla - opas kiviainesten tuottajille, maarakentajille ja viranomaisille.

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D4 Published development or research report or study
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Härmä, P., Tarvainen, T., Backman, B., Hatakka, T., Ketola, T., Kuula, P., Luoma, S., Pyy, O., Sorvari, J., Loukola-Ruskeeniemi, K.
Number of pages: 71
Publication date: 2014

Publication information

Place of publication: Espoo
Publisher: GEOLOGIAN TUTKIMUSKESKUS
ISBN (Print): 978-952-217-288-4
ISBN (Electronic): 978-952-217-289-1
Original language: Finnish

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=rak,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-09-22

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 414

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportProfessional

Liite 6: Yleistä kaivannaisjätealueista ja patoturvallisuudesta

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: D2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering, Research group: Earth Constructions
Contributors: Leppänen, M., Välisalo, T. (ed.), Laasonen, J.
Publication date: 2014

Host publication information

Title of host publication: Kaivosten stressitesti 2013
Publisher: Ympäristöministeriö
ISBN (Electronic): 978-952-11-4269-7

Publication series

Name: Ympäristöministeriön raportteja

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterProfessional

Stiffmaster - A continuous track stiffness measurement device

General information

Publication status: Published
MoE publication type: A4 Article in a conference publication
Organisations: Department of Civil Engineering
Contributors: Luomala, H., Peltokangas, O., Nurmikolu, A.
Number of pages: 10
Pages: 109-118
Publication date: 2014

Host publication information

Title of host publication: GEORAIL 2014 : 2nd International symposium - Railway geotechnical engineering, 6-7 November 2014, France
Publisher: IFSTTAR
ISBN (Print): 978-2-7208-2621-4

Bibliographical note

Contribution: organisation=rak,FACT1=1<br/>Portfolio EDEND: 2014-12-30<br/>Publisher name: IFSTTAR

Source: researchoutputwizard
Source ID: 980

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review