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Single-source multi-battery solar charger: Analysis and stability issues

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6427-6450
Number of pages24
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


In this paper, dynamic analysis of a multi-battery dual mode charger, powered by a single solar array and suitable for lead-acid and lithium-ion cell-based batteries is presented. Each battery is interfaced to the solar array by means of a current-controlled buck power stage, operating either in constant power or constant voltage mode. Operation in former/latter charging mode implies regulating input/output voltage of the converter, which is a non-trivial situation since while feeding different batteries, all the converters share the same input terminals, connected to the solar array. It is revealed that when at least one of the batteries operates in constant power charging mode, open-loop instability occurs whenever converter input voltage is lower than maximum power point voltage of the solar array. Consequently, input voltage regulating controller must be designed to stabilize closed-loop dynamics for the worst case of instability, which is also derived. Moreover, it is shown that the dynamics of the converters operating under output voltage control are perceived as disturbances by input voltage control loop and must be properly rejected. Simple loop shaping design is proposed based on a PI controller, allowing stabilizing the system in case of worst case instability and rejecting output voltage control induced disturbances at the expense of non-constant, operating-point dependent closed-loop damping.

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Battery charging, Input voltage control, Photovoltaic converters, Small-signal modeling, Stability assessment

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