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Spatio-Temporal Waveform Design for Multiuser Massive MIMO Downlink with 1-bit Receivers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-362
JournalIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


Internet-of-Things (IoT) refers to a high-density network of low-cost low-bitrate terminals and sensors where also low energy consumption is one central feature. As the powerbudget of classical receiver chains is dominated by the highresolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), there is a growing interest towards deploying receiver architectures with reducedbit or even 1-bit ADCs. In this paper, we study waveform design, optimization and detection aspects of multi-user massive MIMO downlink where user terminals adopt very simple 1-bit ADCs with oversampling. In order to achieve spectral efficiency higher than 1 bit/s/Hz per real-dimension, and per receiver antenna, we propose a two-stage precoding structure, namely a novel quantization precoder followed by maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) or zero-forcing (ZF) type spatial channel precoder which jointly form the multi-user-multiantenna transmit waveform. The quantization precoder outputs are designed and optimized, under appropriate transmitter and receiver filter bandwidth constraints, to provide controlled inter-symbol-interference (ISI) enabling the input symbols to be uniquely detected from 1-bit quantized observations with a low-complexity symbol detector in the absence of noise. An additional optimization constraint is also imposed in the quantization precoder design to increase the robustness against noise and residual inter-user-interference (IUI). The purpose of the spatial channel precoder, in turn, is to suppress the IUI and provide high beamforming gains such that good symbol-error rates (SERs) can be achieved in the presence of noise and interference. Extensive numerical evaluations illustrate that the proposed spatio-temporal precoder based multiantenna waveform design can facilitate good multiuser link performance, despite the extremely simple 1-bit ADCs in the receivers, hence being one possible enabling technology for the future low-complexity IoT networks.


  • 1-bit ADC, 5G, energy-efficiency, internet-ofthings (IoT), low-cost, massive MIMO, multi-dimensional waveform design and optimization, quantization, sensor receivers, spatio-temporal precoding

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