Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

Structural characteristics and flammability of fire retarding EPDM/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3927-3933
Number of pages7
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2012
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


A high performance elastomeric flame retardant nanocomposite was prepared which was based on maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (mEPDM), a one-step synthesised organo-layered double hydroxide (LDH), and an intumescent flame retardant (FR) comprised of pentaerythritol (PER), ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and methyl cyanoacetate (MCA). The morphology, fire behavior and mechanical properties of the flame-retarded mEPDM/LDH nanocomposite have been studied in detail. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and TEM observation confirmed an exfoliated structure of LDH in a particular composite containing 2 phr (parts per hundred) LDH and 38 phr FR. As an effective flame retardant synergistic agent, MgAl-LDH shows a significant decrease in the heat release rate (HRR), low mass loss (ML) and low fire growth rate (FIGRA) of the nanocomposite. The flame retardant mechanism has been proposed, which is mainly due to the condensed phase flame retardant mechanism to form reinforced char layers during combustion, leading to the low volatiles produced. Moreover, as far as the mechanical properties of the vulcanizates are concerned, in all cases of flame retardant mEPDM and flame retarded mEPDM/LDH nanocomposites, they exhibit superior values compared to the gum compound.