Tampere University of Technology

TUTCRIS Research Portal

The effect of climate change on the amount of wind driven rain on concrete facades

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2016
Subtitle of host publicationVol 2 : Environmental opportunities and challenges, Constructing commitment and acknowledging human experiences
EditorsMatthijs Prins, Hans Wamelink, Bob Giddings, Kihong Ku, Manon Feenstra
Place of PublicationTampere
PublisherTampere University of Technology. Department of Civil Engineering
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)978-952-15-3742-4
Publication statusPublished - May 2016
Publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventCIB World Building Congress -
Duration: 1 Jan 2000 → …


ConferenceCIB World Building Congress
Period1/01/00 → …


Private and public buildings built of concrete make up 34% of the whole building stock in Finland, of which almost 40% is now 30-50 years old. The financial and functional impact on Finnish society of this aged building stock is critical because one third of the country’s population lives in these apartment blocks. There is a rising national concern on increasing maintenance needs of Finnish building stock. It has been concluded that new conceptual approaches to tackle the problem are acutely needed. The main reasons for facade degradation in the Finnish climate are freeze-thaw weathering of concrete and corrosion of reinforcement induced by carbonation of the surrounding concrete. A common denominator in every mechanism is water in varying forms. It can either work as a passage for harmful substances, e.g. chlorides, cause damage by its phase changes (freeze-thaw) or cause dissolution of substances in concrete. Two recent projects conducted by Finnish Meteorological Institute and Tampere University of Technology, have shown that future climate conditions in Finland are likely to get worse in terms of durability of structures exposed to climate. Precipitation during the winter season is going to increase while the form of precipitation is going to be increasingly water and sleet. At the same time, the conditions for drying are going to get worse. Thus, the deterioration rate of structures will accelerate in the most of Finland if maintenance and protection actions are neglected. To simulate the effect of changing climate conditions, it has been studied how the amount of wind-driven rain (WDR) on facades may change in future climate based on a greenhouse gas scenario. The study was conducted by comparing typical Finnish suburban concrete block build in 1970’s in two different locations (coastal area and inland) at current climate and in 2050 and 2100. Based on the study the amount of WDR will increase more in coastal areas than in inland and will be more focused on south and south-west directions. The total increase in WDR will be approx. 15%, while the greatest increase (50%) will be faced by the westward facades in coastal area.

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Climate change, Wind-driven rain, Concrete, Modelling

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland