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The effect of steel grade on weight and cost of warren-type welded tubular trusses

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Original languageEnglish
Article number1600112
Pages (from-to)855-873
Number of pages19
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The effect of steel grade on the weight and cost of Warren-type welded tubular roof trusses was investigated. For an unbiased comparison, best truss designs were obtained through optimisation. The steel strength investigated ranged from S355 to S960. Costs were calculated based on the features of the trusses. The starting point was the exact geometry of the truss, from which a finite-element model was derived. This approach allowed the resistance and other requirements of design standards of both members and joints to be included as constraints in the optimisation problem. The design variables were the truss height, the locations of joints, the gap width at the joints and the member sections, from a catalogue of cold-formed square tubes. Eurocode 3 requirements were applied. The results of the comparison imply a significant saving in weight when using high-strength steel (HSS), by as much as 50% for S960. The cost reduction was smaller, but still about 20%, for a hybrid solution of S700/S355 for the higher of two investigated load values. It is hoped the results will motivate the use and further investigations of HSSs in building products.


  • Buildings, structures & design, Design methods & aids, Steel structures

Publication forum classification

Field of science, Statistics Finland